Chromosome 8 BAC array comparative genomic hybridization and expression analysis identify amplification and overexpression of TRMT12 in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Genomic changes in chromosome 8 are commonly observed in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. To fine map such genomic changes by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), a high resolution (100 kb) chromosome 8 array that can detect single copy changes was developed using Phi29 DNA polymerase amplified BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) DNA. The BAC array CGH resolved the two known amplified regions (8q21 and 8q24) of a breast cancer cell line (SKBR3) into nine separate regions including six amplicons and three deleted regions, all of which were verified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization. The extent of the gain/loss for each region was validated by qPCR. CGH was performed with a total of 8 breast cancer cell lines, and common regions of genomic amplification/deletion were identified by segmentation analysis. A 1.2-Mb region (125.3-126.5 Mb) and a 1.0-Mb region (128.1-129.1 Mb) in 8q24 were amplified in 7/8 cell lines. A global expression analysis was performed to evaluate expression changes associated with genomic amplification/deletion: a novel gene, TRMT12 (at 125.5 Mb), amplified in 7/8 cell lines, showed highest expression in these cell lines. Further analysis by RT-qPCR using RNA from 30 breast tumors showed that TRMT12 was overexpressed >2 fold in 87% (26/30) of the tumors. TRMT12 is a homologue of a yeast gene encoding a tRNA methyltransferase involved in the posttranscriptional modification of tRNA(Phe), and exploring the biological consequence of its altered expression, may reveal novel pathways in tumorigenesis. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
- SourceAvailable from: Asav Dharia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gene duplication has been widely recognized as a major driver of evolutionary change and organismal complexity through the generation of multi-gene families. Therefore, understanding the forces that govern the evolution of gene families through the retention or loss of duplicated genes is fundamentally important in our efforts to study genome evolution. Previous work from our lab has shown that ribosomal protein (RP) genes constitute one of the largest classes of conserved duplicated genes in mammals. This result was surprising due to the fact that ribosomal protein genes evolve slowly and transcript levels are very tightly regulated. In our present study, we identified and characterized all RP duplicates in eight mammalian genomes in order to investigate the tempo and mode of ribosomal protein family evolution. We show that a sizable number of duplicates are transcriptionally active and are very highly conserved. Furthermore, we conclude that existing gene duplication models do not readily account for the preservation of a very large number of intact retroduplicated ribosomal protein (RT-RP) genes observed in mammalian genomes. We suggest that selection against dominant-negative mutations may underlie the unexpected retention and conservation of duplicated RP genes, and may shape the fate of newly duplicated genes, regardless of duplication mechanism.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111721. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are key for efficient and accurate protein translation. To be fully active, tRNAs need to be heavily modified post-transcriptionally. Growing evidence indicates that tRNA modifications and the enzymes catalyzing such modifications may play important roles in complex human pathologies. Here, we have compiled current knowledge that directly link tRNA modifications to human diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), neurological disorders, and mitochondrial-linked disorders. The molecular mechanisms behind these connections remain, for the most part, unknown. As we progress towards the understanding of the roles played by hypomodified tRNAs in human disease, novel areas of therapeutic intervention may be discovered.Trends in Molecular Medicine 02/2014; · 10.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is located at chromosome 8q21, a region that is frequently gained or amplified in multiple human cancer types. TPD52 has been suggested as a potential target for new anticancer therapies. In order to analyze TPD52 expression in the most prevalent human cancer types, we employed quantitative PCR to measure TPD52 mRNA levels in formalin-fixed tissue samples from more than 900 cancer tissues obtained from 29 different human cancer types. TPD52 was expressed at varying levels in all tested normal tissues, including skin, lymph node, lung, oral mucosa, breast, endometrium, ovary, vulva, myometrium, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, prostate, testis, urinary bladder, thyroid gland, brain, muscle and fat tissue. TPD52 was upregulated in 18/29 (62%) tested cancer types. Strongest expression was found in non-seminoma (56-fold overexpression compared to corresponding normal tissue), seminoma (42-fold), ductal (28-fold) and lobular breast cancer (14-fold). In these tumor types, TPD52 upregulation was found in the vast majority (>80%) of tested samples. Downregulation was found in 11 (38%) tumor types, most strongly in papillary renal cell cancer (-8-fold), leiomyosarcoma (-6-fold), clear cell renal cell cancer (-5-fold), liposarcoma (-5-fold) and lung cancer (-4-fold). These results demonstrate that TPD52 is frequently and strongly upregulated in many human cancer types, which may represent candidate tumor types for potential anti-TPD52 therapies.International Journal of Oncology 11/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor