Sleep fragmentation elevates behavioral, electrographic and neurochemical measures of sleepiness

VA Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Research 151-C, 940 Belmont Street, Building 46, Brockton, MA 02301, USA.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.33). 07/2007; 146(4):1462-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep fragmentation, a feature of sleep apnea as well as other sleep and medical/psychiatric disorders, is thought to lead to excessive daytime sleepiness. A rodent model of sleep fragmentation was developed (termed sleep interruption, SI), where rats were awakened every 2 min by the movement of an automated treadmill for either 6 or 24 h of exposure. The sleep pattern of rats exposed to 24 h of SI resembled sleep of the apneic patient in the following ways: sleep was fragmented (up to 30 awakening/h), total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time was greatly reduced, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episode duration was reduced (from 2 min, 5 s baseline to 58 s during SI), whereas the total amount of NREM sleep time per 24 h approached basal levels. Both 6 and 24 h of SI made rats more sleepy, as indicated by a reduced latency to fall asleep upon SI termination. Electrographic measures in the recovery sleep period following either 6 or 24 h of SI also indicated an elevation of homeostatic sleep drive; specifically, the average NREM episode duration increased (e.g. for 24 h SI, from 2 min, 5 s baseline to 3 min, 19 s following SI), as did the NREM delta power during recovery sleep. Basal forebrain (BF) levels of extracellular adenosine (AD) were also measured with microdialysis sample collection and high performance liquid chromatography detection, as previous work suggests that increasing concentrations of BF AD are related to sleepiness. BF AD levels were significantly elevated during SI, peaking at 220% of baseline during 30 h of SI exposure. These combined findings imply an elevation of the homeostatic sleep drive following either 6 or 24 h of SI, and BF AD levels appear to correlate more with sleepiness than with the cumulative amount of prior wakefulness, since total NREM sleep time declined only slightly. SI may be partially responsible for the symptom of daytime sleepiness observed in a number of clinical disorders, and this may be mediated by mechanisms involving BF AD.

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    ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea/hypopnea disorders include centrally originated diseases and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This last condition is renowned as a frequent secondary cause of hypertension (HT). The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HT can be summarized in relation to two main pathways: sympathetic nervous system stimulation mediated mainly by activation of carotid body (CB) chemoreflexes and/or asphyxia, and, by no means the least important, the systemic effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The use of animal models has revealed that CIH is the critical stimulus underlying sympathetic activity and hypertension, and that this effect requires the presence of functional arterial chemoreceptors, which are hyperactive in CIH. These models of CIH mimic the HT observed in humans and allow the study of CIH independently without the mechanical obstruction component. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard treatment for OSA patients, to reduce blood pressure seems to be modest and concomitant antihypertensive therapy is still required. We focus this review on the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to revert HT associated with CIH conditions in both animal models and humans. First, we explore the experimental animal models, developed to mimic HT related to CIH, which have been used to investigate the effect of antihypertensive drugs (AHDs). Second, we review what is known about drug efficacy to reverse HT induced by CIH in animals. Moreover, findings in humans with OSA are cited to demonstrate the lack of strong evidence for the establishment of a first-line antihypertensive regimen for these patients. Indeed, specific therapeutic guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of HT in these patients are still lacking. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives concerning the non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of this particular type of HT.
    Frontiers in Physiology 09/2014; 5:361. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00361
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction and discussion of my thesis, supplemented with references to the published chapters (all freely downloadable) and summaries in Dutch, English, French and German. The discussion contains new data on reversal of the light-dark cycle and on the switch task.
    07/2013, Degree: Ph.D., Supervisor: Eus van Someren
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic upper airway obstruction (UAO) elicits a cascade of complex endocrine derangements that affect growth, sleep, and energy metabolism. We hypothesized that elevated hypothalamic orexin has a role in maintaining ventilation during UAO, while at the same time altering sleep-wake activity and energy metabolism. Here, we sought to explore the UAO-induced changes in hypothalamic orexin and their role in sleep-wake balance, respiratory activity, and energy metabolism. The tracheae of 22-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically narrowed; UAO and sham-operated control animals were monitored for 7 weeks. We measured food intake, body weight, temperature, locomotion, and sleep-wake activity. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify subcutaneous and visceral fat tissue volumes. In week 7, the rats were sacrificed and levels of hypothalamic orexin, serum leptin, and corticosterone were determined. The effect of dual orexin receptor antagonist (almorexant 300 mg/kg) on sleep and respiration was also explored. UAO increased hypothalamic orexin mRNA and protein content by 64% and 65%, respectively. UAO led to 30% chronic sleep loss, excessive active phase sleepiness, decreased body temperature, increased food intake, reduction of abdominal and subcutaneous fat tissue volume, and growth retardation. Administration of almorexant normalized sleep but induced severe breathing difficulties in UAO rats, while it had no effect on sleep or on breathing of control animals. In upper airway obstruction animals, enhanced orexin secretion, while crucially important for respiratory homeostasis maintenance, is also responsible for chronic partial sleep loss, as well as considerable impairment of energy metabolism and growth. Tarasiuk A, Levi A, Berdugo-Boura N, Yahalom A, Segev Y. Role of orexin in respiratory and sleep homeostasis during upper airway obstruction in rats. SLEEP 2014;37(5):987-998.
    Sleep 05/2014; 37(5):987-998. DOI:10.5665/sleep.3676 · 5.06 Impact Factor

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