Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals
ABSTRACT Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events.
Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria.
No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified.
Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports. Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa. Systematic and non-systematic review methods were used. Incidence was obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the reference lists of articles retrieved. Meta-analyses were conducted using a fixed-effects model for HIV and cigarette smoking and random effects for human papilloma virus (HPV). The incidence of OSSN is highest in the Southern Hemisphere (16° South), with the highest age-standardised rate (ASR) reported from Zimbabwe (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100 000 population for males and females, respectively). The mean ASR worldwide is 0.18 and 0.08 cases/year/100 000 among males and females, respectively. The risk increases with exposure to direct daylight (2-4 h, OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and ≥5 h OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and outdoor occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Meta-analysis also shows a strong association with HIV (6 studies: OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 4.83-7.89) and HPV (7 studies: OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.27-5.49) but not cigarette smoking (2 studies: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.94-2.09). The effect of atopy, xeroderma pigmentosa and vitamin A deficiency is unclear. Africa has the highest incidence of OSSN in the world, where males and females are equally affected, unlike other continents where male disease predominates. African women probably have increased risk due to their higher prevalence of HIV and HPV infections. As the survival of HIV-infected people increases, and given no evidence that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of OSSN, the incidence of OSSN may increase in coming years.Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2013; 18(12):1424-43. DOI:10.1111/tmi.12203 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:The frequency of ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSNs) has been increasing in populations with a high prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). We aimed to quantify the association between HIV/AIDS and HPV infection and OSSN, through systematic review and meta-analysis.Methods:The articles providing data on the association between HIV/AIDS and/or HPV infection and OSSN were identified in MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE searched up to May 2013, and through backward citation tracking. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used to compute summary relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was quantified with the I(2) statistic.Results:HIV/AIDS was strongly associated with an increased risk of OSSN (summary RR=8.06, 95% CI: 5.29-12.30, I(2)=56.0%, 12 studies). The summary RR estimate for the infection with mucosal HPV subtypes was 3.13 (95% CI: 1.72-5.71, I(2)=45.6%, 16 studies). Four studies addressed the association between both cutaneous and mucosal HPV subtypes and OSSN; the summary RR estimates were 3.52 (95% CI: 1.23-10.08, I(2)=21.8%) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.57-2.05, I(2)=0.0%), respectively.Conclusion:Human immunodeficiency virus infection increases the risk of OSSN by nearly eight-fold. Regarding HPV infection, only the cutaneous subtypes seem to be a risk factor.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 12 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.539 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; 109(7). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.539 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article reviews the magnitude and spectrum of ocular complications of HIV infection in sub-Sahara Africa. A literature search was done using PubMed, Google, and UpToDate and by talking to ophthalmologists and HIV experts working in the region. Ocular complications of HIV infection, mostly retinal, are seen in 29% to 71% of patients. Cytomegalovirus retinitis affects 0% to 16.5% of HIV-infected patients and is treated successfully with intravitreal ganciclovir in South Africa and Botswana. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia is seen in 4% to 7.8% of persons with HIV (a 5%-6% increase in Uganda and Tanzania), and recurrence after surgery occurs in 3.2% to 31.2%. In Zimbabwe, 45% of meningitis in adults is cryptococcal, and cryptococcal meningitis is the third leading cause of death in HIV patients in rural Uganda. In Rwanda, 9% of patients with cryptococcal meningitis developed visual loss and sixth nerve palsy. Thus, HIV infection leads to significant ocular morbidity in sub-Sahara Africa.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 08/2008; 5(3):120-5. DOI:10.1007/s11904-008-0019-z