Article

Lung function growth in children with long-term exposure to air pollutants in Mexico City

Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 655 Avenida Universidad, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlán, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62508, México.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 11.99). 09/2007; 176(4):377-84. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200510-1678OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with acute, reversible lung function decrements, the impact of long-term exposure has not been well established.
To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ozone (O(3)), particulate matter less than 10 mum in diameter (PM(10)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and lung function growth in Mexico City schoolchildren.
A dynamic cohort of 3,170 children aged 8 years at baseline was followed from April 23, 1996, through May 19, 1999. The children attended 39 randomly selected elementary schools located near 10 air quality monitoring stations and were visited every 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear mixed models.
After adjusting for acute exposure and other potential confounding factors, deficits in FVC and FEV(1) growth over the 3-year follow-up period were significantly associated with exposure to O(3), PM(10), and NO(2). In multipollutant models, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in mean O(3) concentration (IQR, 11.3 ppb) was associated with an annual deficit in FEV(1) of 12 ml in girls and 4 ml in boys, an IQR range (IQR, 36.4 microg/m(3)) increase in PM(10) with an annual deficit in FEV(1) of 11 ml in girls and 15 ml in boys, and an IQR range (IQR, 12.0 ppb) increase in NO(2) with an annual deficit in FEV(1) of 30 ml in girls and 25 ml in boys.
We conclude that long-term exposure to O(3), PM(10), and NO(2) is associated with a deficit in FVC and FEV(1) growth among schoolchildren living in Mexico City.

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    • "Epidemiological studies have consistently linked short-term peaks of PM with respiratory outcomes including morbidity and mortality of individuals with COPD. (Kelly and Fussell 2011) Greater long-term exposures to air pollution have also been associated with slowed lung growth in children (Avol et al. 2001; Gauderman et al. 2004; Rojas-Martinez et al. 2007) and more rapid decline in lung function in adults (Detels et al. 1991; Downs et al. 2007; Tashkin et al. 1994). Studies have similarly shown that greater longterm levels of PM and traffic-related air pollution are associated with higher incident and prevalent COPD (Andersen et al. 2011; Chen et al. 2005; Karakatsani et al. 2003; Lindgren et al. 2009; Schikowski et al. 2005; Sunyer 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Air pollution is linked to low lung function and respiratory events, yet little is known of associations with lung structure.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2014; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307951 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    • "However, results of these studies have been disparate and conclusions inconsistent . Whereas some studies reported associations with lung volume only (Raizenne et al. 1996; Rojas-Martinez et al. 2007; Sugiri et al. 2006), others reported associations with expiratory flow only (Avol et al. 2001; Oftedal et al. 2008). Some studies reported associations with both lung volume and flow (Gauderman et al. 2000; Horak et al. 2002; Schwartz 1989), whereas others reported no associations at all (Dockery et al. 1989; Hirsch et al. 1999; Neas et al. 1991; Nicolai et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Findings from previous studies on the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function during childhood have been inconsistent. A common limitation has been the quality of exposure data used, and few studies have modeled exposure longitudinally throughout early life. Objectives: We sought to study the long-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) before and after bronchodilator treatment. Subjects were from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) birth cohort (n = 1,185). Methods: Spirometry was performed during clinic visits at ages 3, 5, 8, and 11 years. Individual-level PM10 and NO2 exposures were estimated from birth to 11 years of age through a microenvironmental exposure model. Longitudinal and cross-sectional associations were estimated using generalized estimating equations and multivariable linear regression models. Results: Lifetime exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with significantly less growth in FEV1 (percent predicted) over time, both before (–1.37%; 95% CI: –2.52, –0.23 for a 1-unit increase in PM10 and –0.83%; 95% CI: –1.39, –0.28 for a 1-unit increase in NO2) and after bronchodilator treatment (–3.59%; 95% CI: –5.36, –1.83 and –1.20%; 95% CI: –1.97, –0.43, respectively). We found no association between lifetime exposure and sRaw over time. Cross-sectional analyses of detailed exposure estimates for the summer and winter before 11 years of age and lung function at 11 years indicated no significant associations. Conclusions: Long-term PM10 and NO2 exposures were associated with small but statistically significant reductions in lung volume growth in children of elementary-school age. Citation: Mölter A, Agius RM, de Vocht F, Lindley S, Gerrard W, Lowe L, Belgrave D, Custovic A, Simpson A. 2013. Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 in association with lung volume and airway resistance in the MAAS birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121:1232–1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205961
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2013; 121(10). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205961 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Population studies of mortality in adults and children (general, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses) (Borja- Aburto et al. 1997a, b; Loomis et al. 1999), adverse effects on children's respiratory systems (Romieu et al.1992), asthmatic children (acute inflammation) and school-age children (Barraza-Villarreal et al. 2008; Carbajal-Arroyo et al. 2011; Hernandez-Cadena et al. 2007; Rojas-Martinez et al. 2007; Romieu et al. 1995, 1996) found an association between mortality, morbidity and the concentration of ozone and particulate matter \10 lM aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) and particulate matter \2.5 lM aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) in Mexico City and in the border city of Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Most of the studies conducted in Mexico have focused primarily on health problems and air pollution in major metropolitan areas, either in the metropolitan area of Mexico City or the border city of Ciudad Juarez. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in airborne particulate matter concentration (PM) with changes in cases of mortality, acute respiratory infections (ARI) and asthma over 2004–2008 in an industrialized and polluted region in central Mexico. Methods A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and a negative binomial analysis was used to evaluate the influence of PM and temperature on all-cause mortality (All-cause-M), cause-specific mortality (Cause-specific-M), ARI and asthma, using cubic spline functions and distributed lags of PM. Estimated changes in relative risk were calculated for an exposure corresponding to each increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM level. Results Associations between PM and mortality and morbidity were statistically most consistent for total suspended particulate (TSP) than for particulate matter
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 04/2012; 86(3). DOI:10.1007/s00420-012-0768-2 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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