Toward an ultrasound curriculum for critical care medicine. Crit Care Med 35:S290-S304

General Intensive Care Unit "Bozza," Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.
Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.31). 06/2007; 35(5 Suppl):S290-304. DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000260680.16213.26
Source: PubMed


Accurate assessment and rapid decision-making are essential to save lives and improve performance in critical care medicine. Real-time point-of-care ultrasound has become an invaluable adjunct to the clinical evaluation of critically ill and injured patients both for pre- and in-hospital situations. However, a high level of quality is necessary, guaranteed by appropriate education, experience, credentialing, quality control, continuing education, and professional development. Although educational recommendations have been proposed by a variety of nonimaging specialties, to date they are still scattered and limited examples of standards for critical and intensive care professionals. The challenge of providing adequate specialty-specific training, as encouraged by major medical societies, is made even more difficult by the diversity of critical care ultrasound utilization by various subspecialties in a variety of settings and numerous countries. In order to meet this educational challenge, a standard core curriculum is presented in this manuscript. The proposed curriculum is built on a competence, performance, and outcomes-based approach that is tailored to setting-specific training needs and prioritized according to critical problem-based pathways, rather than traditional organ-based systems. A multiple goal-oriented style fully addresses the specialty-specific approach of critical and intensive care professionals, who typically deal with disease states in complex scenarios rather than individual organ complaints. Because of the variation in the concept of what constitutes critical care worldwide, and the rate of change of information and technology, this manuscript attempts to present a learning system addressing a variety of needs for a rapidly changing world.

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    • "Even though CCUS competency requirements for image acquisition and interpretation have been outlined [9] [10] [11], there remains no consensus on how the education, training, and evaluation of these competencies should be achieved [12]. Consequently, CCUS education during fellowship can be inconsistent between training programs and may lead to varied ultrasound proficiency among graduating fellows and practicing intensivists [1] [11] [13]. This creates the risk of inappropriate ultrasound utilization in critical situations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives . Despite the increasing utilization of point-of-care critical care ultrasonography (CCUS), standards establishing competency for its use are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day CCUS course implementation on ultrasound-naïve critical care medicine (CCM) fellows. Methods . Prospective evaluation of the impact of a two-day CCUS course on eight CCM fellows’ attitudes, proficiency, and use of CCUS. Ultrasound competency on multiple organ systems was assessed including abdominal, pulmonary, vascular, and cardiac systems. Subjects served as self-controls and were assessed just prior to, within 1 week after, and 3 months after the course. Results . There was a significant improvement in CCM fellows’ written test scores, image acquisition ability, and pathologic image interpretation 1 week after the course and it was retained 3 months after the course. Fellows also had self-reported increased confidence and usage of CCUS applications after the course. Conclusions . Implementation of a 2-day critical care ultrasound course covering general CCUS and basic critical care echocardiography using a combination of didactics, live models, and ultrasound simulators is effective in improving critical care fellows’ proficiency and confidence with ultrasound use in both the short- and long-term settings.
    Critical care research and practice 09/2015; 2015(7):675041. DOI:10.1155/2015/675041
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    • "Transthoracic lung ultrasound was performed offline by an experienced investigator with level-3 certification [25], who was unaware of any other hemodynamic measures. A Siemens Acuson CV70 and a 2- to 4-MHz round-tipped or convex probe were used. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The study was designed to assess the impact of fluid loading on lung aeration, oxygenation and hemodynamics in patients with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods During a 1-year period, a prospective observational study was performed in 32 patients with septic shock and ARDS. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using Swan Ganz (n = 29) or PiCCO catheters (n = 3). Lung aeration and regional pulmonary blood flows were measured using bedside transthoracic ultrasound. Measurements were performed before (T0), at the end of volume expansion (T1) and 40 minutes later (T2), consisting of 1-L of saline over 30 minutes during the first 48 h following onset of septic shock and ARDS. Results Lung ultrasound score increased by 23% at T2, from 13 at baseline to 16 (P < 0.001). Cardiac index and cardiac filling pressures increased significantly at T1 (P < 0.001) and returned to control values at T2. The increase in lung ultrasound score was statistically correlated with fluid loading-induced increase in cardiac index and was not associated with increase in pulmonary shunt or regional pulmonary blood flow. At T1, PaO2/FiO2 significantly increased (P < 0.005) from 144 (123 to 198) to 165 (128 to 226) and returned to control values at T2, whereas lung ultrasound score continued to increase. Conclusions Early fluid loading transitorily improves hemodynamics and oxygenation and worsens lung aeration. Aeration changes can be detected at the bedside by transthoracic lung ultrasound, which may serve as a safeguard against excessive fluid loading.
    Critical care (London, England) 05/2014; 18(3):R91. DOI:10.1186/cc13859 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Ultrasound is regarded to be a crucial diagnostic tool in many clinical questions of critical care medicine [36]. It is therefore imperative that ultrasound training is concisely and effectively conveyed to course participants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Lung ultrasound has become an emerging tool in acute and critical care medicine. Combined theoretical and hands-on training has been required to teach ultrasound diagnostics. Current computer technology allows for display, explanation, and animation of information in a remote-learning environment. Objective. Development and assessment of an e-learning program for lung ultrasound. Methods. An interactive online tutorial was created. A prospective learning success study was conducted with medical students using a multiple-choice test (Trial A). This e-learning program was used as preparation for a certified course followed by an evaluation of trained doctors (Trial B) by linear analogue scales. Pretests were compared with postcourse tests and sustainability tests as well as a posttest of a one-day custom classroom training. Results. In Trial A, during the learning success study (n = 29), the increase of correct answers was 11.7 to 17/20 in the post-test and to 16.6/20 in the sustainability test (relative change 45.1%, P < 0.0001). E-learning almost equalled scores of classroom-based training regarding gain and retention of factual knowledge. In Trial B, nineteen participating doctors found a 79.5% increase of knowledge (median, 95% CI: 69%; 88%). Conclusion. The basics of lung ultrasound can be taught in a highly effective manner using e-learning.
    11/2013; 2013(5):145361. DOI:10.1155/2013/145361
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