Profibrotic effect of IL-9 overexpression in a model of airway remodeling.
ABSTRACT IL-9 overexpression protects against alveolar fibrosis induced by crystalline silica particles. This cytokine is also involved in allergic asthma. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-9 overexpression on the subepithelial fibrotic response, a feature of asthmatic remodeling, induced by chronic exposure to Alternaria alternata extract. IL-9-overexpressing mice (Tg5) and their wild-type counterparts (FVB) were intranasally exposed to A. alternata extract or PBS (controls) twice a week during 3 mo. At the end of the allergic challenge, enhanced pause (Penh) measured in response to methacholine and fibrotic parameters, such as collagen and fibronectin lung content, were significantly higher in Tg5 compared with FVB. Staining of lung sections with Masson's Trichrome also showed more collagen fibers in peribronchial areas of treated Tg5 mice. A similar recruitment of inflammatory cells was observed in challenged FVB and Tg5 mice, except for eosinophils, which were significantly more abundant in the lung of Tg5. High serum levels of IgE and IgG1 in both strains indicated that FVB and Tg5 developed a strong type 2 immune response. The concentration of the eosinophil chemoattractant RANTES and the profibrotic mediator connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was higher in the BAL of challenged Tg5 than FVB. These results demonstrate a profibrotic role of IL-9 in an airway remodeling model, possibly involving eosinophils and CTGF. These data also highlight a dual role of IL-9 in lung fibrosis, being anti- or profibrotic depending on the alveolar or airway localization of the process, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: CCN proteins play crucial roles in development, angiogenesis, cell motility, matrix turnover, proliferation, and other fundamental cell processes. Early embryonic lethality in CCN5 knockout and over-expressing mice led us to characterize CCN5 distribution in early development. Previous papers in this series showed that CCN5 is expressed widely in mice from E9.5 to adult; however, its distribution before E9.5 has not been studied. To fill this gap in our knowledge of CCN5 expression in mammals, RT-PCR was performed on preimplantation murine embryos: 1 cell, 2 cell, 4 cell, early morula, late morula, and blastocyst. CCN5 mRNA was not detected in 1, 2, or 4 cell embryos. It was first detected at the early morula stage and persisted to the preimplantation blastocyst stage. Immunohistochemical staining showed widespread CCN5 expression in post-implantation blastocysts (E4.5), E5.5, E6.5, and E7.5 stage embryos. Consistent with our previous study on E9.5 embryos, this expression was not limited to a particular germ layer or cell type. The widespread distribution of CCN5 in early embryos suggests a crucial role in development.Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 08/2012;
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-9 (IL-9), cloned more than 20 years ago, was initially thought to be a Th2-specific cytokine. This assumption was initially confirmed by functional analyses showing that both IL-9 and Th2 cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, IgE class switch recombination, and resolution of parasitic infections. However, recently it was shown that IL-9-producing CD4(+) T cells represent the discrete T helper subset Th9 cells. Herein, we will review the cytokines and transcription factors known to promote the development of Th9 cells and their potential functional properties in relation to the biological activities of IL-9. In addition, we will discuss how Th9 cells are related to Th2, Th17, and T(reg) cells, as both an alternative source of IL-9 and in view of the fact that plasticity of CD4(+) T cell differentiation is currently a strong matter of debate in immunologic research.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2012; 1247:56-68. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2011; 183(7):834-5. · 11.04 Impact Factor