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    ABSTRACT: CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant ichthyotic disorder. CHILD syndrome results from loss of function mutations in the NSDHL gene, which leads to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates in affected tissues. The CHILD syndrome skin is characterized by plaques topped by waxy scales and a variety of developmental defects in extracutaneous tissues, particularly limb hypoplasia or aplasia. Strikingly, these alterations are commonly segregated to either the right or left side of the body midline with little to no manifestations on the ipsilateral side. By understanding the underlying disease mechanism of CHILD syndrome, a pathogenesis-based therapy has been developed that successfully reverses the CHILD syndrome skin phenotype and has potential applications to the treatment of other ichthyoses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; 1841(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.09.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome is an X-linked autosomal dominant disorder characterized by unilateral congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and ipsilateral limb defects caused by a mutation in the gene encoding NAD[P]H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein (NSDHL) at Xq28. The histopathologic hallmark of skin lesions in CHILD syndrome is psoriasiform epidermis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, and its most striking feature affecting the upper dermis is filling of the papillary dermis with foam cells. Here we present the case of a 9-year-old Chinese girl born with the typical clinical features of CHILD syndrome. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the skin lesions confirmed the diagnosis and led to identification of a heterozygous point mutation in exon 8 of the NSDHL gene. In addition, we provide a literature review of 26 unrelated CHILD syndrome patients from different countries, caused by 20 unique gene mutations occurring throughout the entire NSDHL gene, to promote understanding and provide a more comprehensive description of this unusual disorder.
    Pediatric Dermatology 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/pde.12701 · 1.02 Impact Factor