Switching of the paraprotein isotype or transient presence of oligoclonal bands detectable by serum immunofixation electrophoresis has been reported following not only transplantations, but also after intensive chemotherapy for leukemia. Retrospective analysis of 72 transplanted myeloma patients was carried out to determine the frequency and clinical significance of the appearance of abnormal proteins bands (APB) distinct from the original paraprotein. APB presence was observed in 31 patients (43%) already after the first autotransplant, the median interval from transplant was 2 months (range, 1 to 6 months). The most frequent occurrence of APB was observed after allogeneic transplantation. In the group of patients with APB presence more patients achieved complete remission (32.2% versus 17.1%), statistically significant differences were also established when we compared the percentage of surviving patients and overall survival, to the present date, among both groups of patients (p=0.03). All relapsed patients with previous isotype class switching had disease characterized by the same type of paraprotein as that detected at diagnosis. The development of APB is likely related to the recovery of impaired immunoglobulin production after transplantation. We confirmed favourable prognostic significance of this finding in transplanted myeloma patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the characteristics of small abnormal protein bands (APB) (including oligoclonal bands and new apparent monoclonal bands) that are frequently detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the post-autologous stem cell transplant setting.
In a retrospective analysis of patients with multiple myeloma undergoing transplantation, paraprotein identity and quantification were performed using standard immunofixation electrophoresis. The nature of any new bands was determined by IEF which distinguished between oligoclonal bands and apparent monoclonal bands.
Of 49 myeloma cases, the median follow-up was 33.7 months (range, 5.6-97.5 months) and 24 patients had relapsed. Thirty six (73%) developed APB. 22 patients had more than one episode of APB and 6 patients had more than 2 episodes resulting in a total of 69 episodes of APB observed post-transplant. IEF demonstrated 54 of these APB were oligoclonal bands and 15 appeared to be monoclonal. Of the 15 episodes of apparent monoclonal bands, 10 had differing heavy or light chain restriction compared to the original myeloma paraprotein and 5 had the same heavy and light chain restriction but different band location in the SPEP lane. Ten of these apparent monoclonal bands resolved, 5 persisted, and only one represented true disease progression. The presence of APB impacted favourably on event-free survival (p=0.05).
Small APB are very frequent post-transplant for myeloma, and IEF can identify these APB as oligoclonal or monoclonal. Apparent monoclonal bands may represent relapsed disease, but in the vast majority of cases it does not, and most likely represents a transient phenomenon representing regeneration of a limited immune response.
The Clinical biochemist. Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists 08/2009; 30(3):113-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraproteinaemia following allo-SCT is common. We analysed 91 consecutive patients undergoing allo-SCT; conditioning included alemtuzumab in 42% of the patients. Paraproteinaemia incidence at 2 years was 32%. In univariate analysis paraproteinaemia was associated with unrelated donor, age, recipient seropositivity for CMV and alemtuzumab conditioning (hazard ratio (HR) 3.93, P=0.0006). Paraproteinaemia was not associated with haematological diagnosis; disease status at transplant; varicella zoster, herpes simplex or EBV serology; reduced-intensity vs myeloablative conditioning or GVHD. CMV reactivation-more frequent in alemtuzumab recipients-was associated with paraproteinaemia (HR 7.52, P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only increasing age (HR 1.04 per year, P=0.048) and CMV reactivation (HR 5.74, P=0.001) were significantly associated with paraproteinaemia. Alemtuzumab without CMV reactivation, however, resulted in significantly more paraproteinaemia, suggesting an effect that is independent of CMV reactivation. OS was poorer in patients with paraproteinaemia (HR 2.54, P=0.04) and relapse increased (HR 2.38, P=0.087). Paraproteinaemia was not significantly independently associated with decreased survival on multivariate analysis. Post transplant paraproteinaemia is associated with CMV reactivation, is more frequent in alemtuzumab-conditioned transplants and is not associated with improved OS.
Bone marrow transplantation 10/2010; 46(7):993-9. DOI:10.1038/bmt.2010.244 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal protein bands (APB) unrelated to the original monoclonal protein occasionally appear in serum immunofixation samples from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). To investigate the significance of APB, medical records and serum immunofixation patterns of 53 MM patients, who had undergone HCT (49 autologous and 4 allogeneic) at the stem cell transplantation unit of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, were reviewed. Patients were staged according to Durie-Salmon and International staging systems (ISS) and disease response was determined according to European Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria. Fourteen (26.4%) of the 53 patients developed APBs after HCT. The median time for the appearance and duration of APB was 3 (range 1-24) and 5.5 (range 1.5-14) months, respectively. Probability of overall survival (OS) at the end of the follow-up was 77 and 61.4% in patients with and without APB, respectively (p = 0.334). The median duration of follow-up (767 days (range, 220-2905) vs. 726 days (range, 120-1780) p = 0.545) was not different in patients with and without APB. Probability of progression free survival (PFS) at the end of follow-up was 28.8% in patients with and 27.7% in patients without APB (p = 0.835). PFS (910 days (range 180-2905) vs. 730 days (range 90-1765) p = 0.835) was longer in patients with APB, though without statistical significance. Thus, the occurrence of APB post-transplantation is not associated with any adverse long-term consequences and does not require treatment modification.
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