A holistic framework for design of cost-effective minimum water utilization network
ABSTRACT Water pinch analysis (WPA) is a well-established tool for the design of a maximum water recovery (MWR) network. MWR, which is primarily concerned with water recovery and regeneration, only partly addresses water minimization problem. Strictly speaking, WPA can only lead to maximum water recovery targets as opposed to the minimum water targets as widely claimed by researchers over the years. The minimum water targets can be achieved when all water minimization options including elimination, reduction, reuse/recycling, outsourcing and regeneration have been holistically applied. Even though WPA has been well established for synthesis of MWR network, research towards holistic water minimization has lagged behind. This paper describes a new holistic framework for designing a cost-effective minimum water network (CEMWN) for industry and urban systems. The framework consists of five key steps, i.e. (1) Specify the limiting water data, (2) Determine MWR targets, (3) Screen process changes using water management hierarchy (WMH), (4) Apply Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) strategy, and (5) Design water network. Three key contributions have emerged from this work. First is a hierarchical approach for systematic screening of process changes guided by the WMH. Second is a set of four new heuristics for implementing process changes that considers the interactions among process changes options as well as among equipment and the implications of applying each process change on utility targets. Third is the SHARPS cost-screening technique to customize process changes and ultimately generate a minimum water utilization network that is cost-effective and affordable. The CEMWN holistic framework has been successfully implemented on semiconductor and mosque case studies and yielded results within the designer payback period criterion.
- SourceAvailable from: Walter DenResources Conservation and Recycling 01/2015; 94:35-42. DOI:10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.11.007 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work presents the development of a new systematic technique to target fresh water consumption and wastewater generation for systems involving multiple contaminants when all options of water minimization including source elimination, reduction, reuse/recycle, outsourcing and regeneration are considered simultaneously. This problem is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and implemented in Generalized Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The consideration of process changes will lead to optimal design of minimum water utilization network. The MILP model proposed in this work can be used to simultaneously generate the minimum water targets and design the minimum water network for global water-using operations for buildings and industry. The approach is illustrated by using an industrial involving a chlor-alkali plant. Significant water savings for the industrial case study is achieved, illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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ABSTRACT: The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) demands a detailed analysis to determine which changes and measures within the surface water system are required, which actors require detailed scrutiny, and which technology has to be developed in order to guarantee that the quality of the surface water is complying with this Directive.This paper will discuss a holistic model developed for the optimization of the surface water system for a water authority in The Netherlands, which is influenced by (i) waste water streams originating from e.g. households, industry, agricultural and transport activities among others and (ii) the end-of-pipe technology of waste water treatment plants, while interfacing with (iii) thermal treatment and minerals and metallurgical processing for the recovery of specific elements from waste water sludge and other residues created during waste water treatment.The paper develops a fundamental basis that can feed factual information such as optimal combination of measures (technology and policy) into sustainability frameworks or the implementation of the EWFD. This optimization is affected by quality constraints, costs, energy, environment and interactions between the various materials present in the different streams in the water system. By incorporating these parameters into the model a tool is provided that provides metrics to measure the ‘sustainability’ of the Web of Water (WoW), while linking to and harmonising with the Web of Materials/Metals (WoM).The WoW optimization model links material cycles from e.g. food, transport, agriculture and industry to the recovery of materials from the water cycle with the pyrometallurgical and thermal processing of minerals/materials, hence quantifying resource conservation and sustainability on the interface between aquatic and product manufacturing systems and the process industries.Minerals Engineering 02/2010; DOI:10.1016/j.mineng.2009.08.009 · 1.71 Impact Factor