Paratesticular rhabdomyoma is a rare benign tumor, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. We report the first case of a locally invasive paratesticular rhabdomyoma in a 17-year-old male teenager who presented with chronic scrotal pain. We further review the current literature of this rare tumor.
"In humans, rhabdomyomas account for only 2% of all skeletal muscle tumors (Weiss and Goldblum 2001). Most extracardiac rhabdomyomas are located in the head and neck region (Hansen and Katenkamp 2005), but a genital type of rhabdomyoma has been reported in the paratestis of a young adult (Davies et al. 2007). In mice, the pathogenesis of rhabdomyomas was studied by Meikle et al. (2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat showed signs of emaciation, and masses were found in the subcutis around the cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, a multilobular mass, 2.2 x 1.8 x 2.0 cm in size, had grown from the left neck into the thoracic cavity. On a cutting surface, masses were firm and whitish to tan, with necrotic and hemorrhagic plaques. Microscopically, masses were composed of multiple nodules of tumor cells that were incompletely encapsulated with fibrous connective tissue. The tumor cells exhibited varied forms, from spindle to globoid shapes with minimal to abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and appeared as large, multinucleated cells; many of the tumor cells were vacuolated. Histochemistry results revealed that tumor cells exhibited some cross-striation in the cytoplasm using PTAH staining. There were some multinuclear tumor cells with vacuoles located around the nuclei, and these vacuoles showed reddish staining by the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) method. Immunohistochemical staining also expressed intense granular cytoplasmic staining for desmin and myoglobin, with highly positive staining for PCNA, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) was negative. Based on the pathology results, a spontaneous rhabdomyosarcoma with pleomorphic type was diagnosed in a young SD rat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Automatic Feynman-amplitude calculation system, GRACE, is a generator of event generators, which was originally designed to calculate the processes in the standard electroweak theory. Recently GRACE has been extended to treat next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations (GRACE-NLO). Matrix elements of loop diagrams as well as those of tree level ones can be generated using the GRACE system. A soft/collinear singularity is treated using a leading-log subtraction method. Higher order re-summation of the soft/collinear correction by the parton shower method is combined with the NLO matrix-element without any double-counting in this method. For the LHC physics, the GR@PPA framework has been prepared to include the parton distribution function (PDF) and the treatment of lots of subprocesses. Combing GRACE-NLO with the GR@PPA framework, the event generators for W+jet and di-photon processes are given for demonstrating a validity of this method.
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