T- and B-lymphocytes in patients with schizophrenia in acute psychotic episode and the course of the treatment

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Ludwig-Maximilians-University, München, Germany.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 09/2007; 152(2-3):173-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2006.06.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is associated with alterations of the immune system. There are, however, only limited data dealing with immune parameters in unmedicated schizophrenic patients and the course of these parameters during treatment. In this study, we monitored CD19+ (B)- and CD3+ (T)-lymphocytes in the course of antipsychotic treatment. Forty patients diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia were tested before and after 3 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 3 months of treatment with antipsychotics. The percentages of CD19+- and CD3+ -lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry using fluorescence conjugated anti-CD19 and anti-CD3 antibodies. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. In the acute state of psychosis, a significant reduction of the CD3+ -lymphocyte subpopulation was observed, while the percentage of CD19(+)-lymphocytes was increased. Both subpopulations levelled to those of the control group in the course of treatment. As expected, the levels of the immune parameters did not change in the healthy controls during the course of the study. The observed alterations of the CD19+ - and CD3+ -lymphocytes in the acute state of psychosis especially in patients with the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, and the "normalization" during the observation period are discussed under the aspect of the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia, in particular of the type-1/type-2 imbalance hypothesis.

    • "14 Mazzarello et al. 2004 Schizophrenia patients (n=24) Decreased percentage of CD8+ and higher CD4+ / CD8+ ratio were reported. 15 Matloubi et al. 2007 Drug-free schizophrenia patients (n=30) Lower T cell responses to mitogen 16 Maino et al. 2007 Unmedicated Schizophrenia patients (n=40) In the acute state of psychosis, a significant reduction of the CD3+lymphocyte subpopulation and increased percentage of CD19(+)lymphocytes were observed. 17 Craddock et al. 2007 In vitro studies of peripheral blood T cells derived from schizophrenia patients "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe and highly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiopathology. Recently, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling etiological models of schizophrenia. Over the past few years considerable research has been devoted to the role of innate immune responses in schizophrenia. The findings of such studies have helped to conceptualize schizophrenia as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Although the contribution of adaptive immune responses has also been emphasized, however, the precise role of T cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained comprehensively. T cells have the ability to infiltrate brain and mediate neuro-immune cross-talk. Conversely, the central nervous system and the neurotransmitters are capable of regulating the immune system. Neurotransmitter like dopamine, implicated widely in schizophrenia risk and progression can modulate the proliferation, trafficking and functions of T cells. Within brain, T cells activate microglia, induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as reactive oxygen species and subsequently lead to neuroinflammation. Importantly, such processes contribute to neuronal injury/death and are gradually being implicated as mediators of neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat schizophrenia are also known to affect adaptive immune system; interfere with the differentiation and functions of T cells. This understanding suggests a pivotal role of T cells in the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia and forms the basis of this review.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11481-015-9626-9 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "This decreasing has also been found in patients with breast cancer having a higher hopeful attitude [70] or in patients that receive psychological treatment before surgery in order to decrease their surgical anxiety [71]. However, B cells are increased in patients with acute schizophrenia [72] or university students under stress periods [73]. In laboratory animals (mouse) with experimental allergic or autoimmune encephalomyelitis [74, 75], as well as in multiple sclerosis patients [76] has also been found the presence of CD134+ cells localized in the active lesions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aging process involves a decline in immune functioning that renders elderly people more vulnerable to disease. In residential programs for the aged, it is vital to diminish their risk of disease, promote their independence, and augment their psychological well-being and quality of life. We performed a randomized controlled study, evaluating the ability of a relaxation technique based on Benson’s relaxation response to enhance psychological well-being and modulate the immune parameters of elderly people living in a geriatric residence when compared to a waitlist control group. The study included a 2-week intervention period and a 3-month follow-up period. The main outcome variables were psychological well-being and quality of life, biomedical variables, immune changes from the pre-treatment to post-treatment and follow-up periods. Our findings reveal significant differences between the experimental and control groups in CD19, CD71, CD97, CD134, and CD137 lymphocyte subpopulations at the end of treatment. Furthermore, there was a decrease in negative affect, psychological discomfort, and symptom perception in the treatment group, which increased participants’ quality of life scores at the three-month follow-up. This study represents a first approach to the application of a passive relaxation technique in residential programs for the elderly. The method appears to be effective in enhancing psychological well-being and modulating immune activity in a group of elderly people. This relaxation technique could be considered an option for achieving health benefits with a low cost for residential programs, but further studies using this technique in larger samples of older people are needed to confirm the trends observed in the present study. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN85410212
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):311. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-311 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "The finding that immune alterations in schizophrenia have been found within the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as in peripheral systems such as blood serum and leukocytes, suggests that systemic inflammatory processes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis (Maino et al., 2007; Potvin et al., 2008; Chan et al., 2011; Drexhage et al., 2011a,b; Miller et al., 2011; Schwarz et al., 2012). A previously published meta-analysis of 14 studies on serum cytokine alterations in first-episode schizophrenia patients (N between 4 and 83) found increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ and soluble IL-2-receptor, although significant heterogeneity was observed across the different studies (Miller et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia has been associated with central nervous system and peripheral immune system imbalances. However, most studies have not yielded conclusive results due to limitations such as small sample size, dissimilarities in the clinical status of patients and the high variability of cytokine levels within the normal human population. Here, we have attempted to account for these limitations by carrying out standardised multiplex immunoassay analyses of 9 cytokines in serum from 180 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 350 matched controls across 5 clinical cohorts. All subjects were matched for potential confounding factors including age, gender, smoking and body mass index. We found that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1RA, IL-10 and IL-15 were increased significantly in patients across the cohorts. We also found that the levels of IL-1RA and IL-10 were decreased in 32 patients who had been followed up and treated for 6 weeks with atypical antipsychotics. Interestingly, we found that the changes in IL-10 levels were significantly correlated with the improvements in negative, general and total symptom scores. These results indicate that mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory responses may be altered in first onset patients, suggesting a role in the aetiology of schizophrenia. The finding that only the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 responded to treatment in parallel with symptom improvement suggests that this could be used as a potential treatment response biomarker in future studies of schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; 154(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.02.005 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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