T- and B-lymphocytes in patients with schizophrenia in acute psychotic episode and the course of the treatment
ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is associated with alterations of the immune system. There are, however, only limited data dealing with immune parameters in unmedicated schizophrenic patients and the course of these parameters during treatment. In this study, we monitored CD19+ (B)- and CD3+ (T)-lymphocytes in the course of antipsychotic treatment. Forty patients diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia were tested before and after 3 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 3 months of treatment with antipsychotics. The percentages of CD19+- and CD3+ -lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry using fluorescence conjugated anti-CD19 and anti-CD3 antibodies. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. In the acute state of psychosis, a significant reduction of the CD3+ -lymphocyte subpopulation was observed, while the percentage of CD19(+)-lymphocytes was increased. Both subpopulations levelled to those of the control group in the course of treatment. As expected, the levels of the immune parameters did not change in the healthy controls during the course of the study. The observed alterations of the CD19+ - and CD3+ -lymphocytes in the acute state of psychosis especially in patients with the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, and the "normalization" during the observation period are discussed under the aspect of the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia, in particular of the type-1/type-2 imbalance hypothesis.
SourceAvailable from: Fatih Canan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammatory mechanisms are reported to play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and easily accessible indicator of the systemic inflammatory response. Our goal was to investigate whether NLR was higher in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy comparison subjects similar in age, sex, and body mass index. Subjects and methods: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we analyzed 156 non-obese patients with schizophrenia and 89 healthy control subjects for complete blood count. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was used to determine the severity of clinical pathology. Results: The mean +/- SD NLR of patients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (2.6 +/- 1.1 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.6, respectively, p<0.001). NLR did not significantly correlate with severity and duration of schizophrenia (r=0.065. p>0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NLR levels are increased in physically healthy, non-obese, patients with schizophrenia when compared with physically and mentally healthy individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated the association between NLR and schizophrenia.Psychiatria Danubina 09/2014; 26(3):220-225. · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia has been associated with central nervous system and peripheral immune system imbalances. However, most studies have not yielded conclusive results due to limitations such as small sample size, dissimilarities in the clinical status of patients and the high variability of cytokine levels within the normal human population. Here, we have attempted to account for these limitations by carrying out standardised multiplex immunoassay analyses of 9 cytokines in serum from 180 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 350 matched controls across 5 clinical cohorts. All subjects were matched for potential confounding factors including age, gender, smoking and body mass index. We found that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1RA, IL-10 and IL-15 were increased significantly in patients across the cohorts. We also found that the levels of IL-1RA and IL-10 were decreased in 32 patients who had been followed up and treated for 6 weeks with atypical antipsychotics. Interestingly, we found that the changes in IL-10 levels were significantly correlated with the improvements in negative, general and total symptom scores. These results indicate that mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory responses may be altered in first onset patients, suggesting a role in the aetiology of schizophrenia. The finding that only the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 responded to treatment in parallel with symptom improvement suggests that this could be used as a potential treatment response biomarker in future studies of schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; 154(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.02.005 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe aging process involves a decline in immune functioning that renders elderly people more vulnerable to disease. In residential programs for the aged, it is vital to diminish their risk of disease, promote their independence, and augment their psychological well-being and quality of life.MethodsWe performed a randomized controlled study, evaluating the ability of a relaxation technique based on Benson’s relaxation response to enhance psychological well-being and modulate the immune parameters of elderly people living in a geriatric residence when compared to a waitlist control group. The study included a 2-week intervention period and a 3-month follow-up period. The main outcome variables were psychological well-being and quality of life, biomedical variables, immune changes from the pre-treatment to post-treatment and follow-up periods.ResultsOur findings reveal significant differences between the experimental and control groups in CD19, CD71, CD97, CD134, and CD137 lymphocyte subpopulations at the end of treatment. Furthermore, there was a decrease in negative affect, psychological discomfort, and symptom perception in the treatment group, which increased participants’ quality of life scores at the three-month follow-up.ConclusionsThis study represents a first approach to the application of a passive relaxation technique in residential programs for the elderly. The method appears to be effective in enhancing psychological well-being and modulating immune activity in a group of elderly people. This relaxation technique could be considered an option for achieving health benefits with a low cost for residential programs, but further studies using this technique in larger samples of older people are needed to confirm the trends observed in the present study.Trial registrationInternational Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN85410212BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):311. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-311 · 1.88 Impact Factor