Long term disease-free survival in acute leukemia patients recovering with increased gammadelta T cells after partially mismatched related donor bone marrow transplantation.

South Carolina Cancer Center, Columbia, SC, USA.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.47). 06/2007; 39(12):751-7. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705650
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has improved leukemia-free survival (LFS) in many but not all patients with acute leukemia. This is an eight-year follow-up to our previous study showing a survival advantage to patients with an increased gammadelta T cells following ASCT. gammadelta T cell levels were collected prospectively in 153 patients (acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) n = 77; acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) n = 76) undergoing partially mismatched related donor ASCT. Median age was 22 years (1-59), and 62% of the patients were in relapse at transplant. Patient-donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity of three antigens was 37% in the graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and 29% in the rejection directions. All patients received a partially T cell-depleted graft using T10B9 (n = 46) or OKT3 (n = 107). Five years LFS and overall survival (OS) of patients with increased gammadelta compared to those with normal/decreased numbers were 54.4 vs 19.1%; P < 0.0003, and 70.8 vs 19.6% P < 0.0001, respectively, with no difference in GvHD (P = 0.96). In a Cox multivariate analysis, normal/decreased gammadelta (hazard ratio (HR) 4.26, P = 0.0002) and sex mismatch (HR 1.45 P=0.049) were associated with inferior LFS. In conclusion, gammadelta T cells may facilitate a graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect, without causing GvHD. Further evaluations of this effect may lead to specific immunotherapy for patients with refractory leukemia.

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    ABSTRACT: Despite effective anti-viral therapies, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is still associated with direct (CMV disease) and indirect effects (rejection and poor graft survival) in kidney transplant recipients. Recently, an unconventional T cell population (collectively designated as Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells) has been characterized during the anti-CMV immune response in all solid-organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients, neonates, and healthy people. These CMV-induced Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells undergo a dramatic and stable expansion after CMV infection, in a conventional "adaptive" manner. Similarly, as CMV-specific CD8+ αβ T cells, they exhibit an effector/memory TEMRA phenotype and cytotoxic effector functions. Activation of Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells by CMV-infected cells involves the γδ T cell receptor (TCR) and still ill-defined co-stimulatory molecules such as LFA-1. A multiple of Vδ2(neg) γδ TCR ligands are apparently recognized on CMV-infected cells, the first one identified being the major histocompatibility complex-related molecule endothelial protein C receptor. A singularity of CMV-induced Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells is to acquire CD16 expression and to exert an antibody-dependent cell-mediated inhibition on CMV replication, which is controlled by a specific cytokine microenvironment. Beyond the well-demonstrated direct anti-CMV effect of Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells, unexpected indirect effects of these cells have been also observed in the context of kidney transplantation. CMV-induced Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells have been involved in surveillance of malignancy subsequent to long-term immunosuppression. Moreover, CMV-induced CD16+ γδ T cells are cell effectors of antibody-mediated rejection of kidney transplants, and represent a new physiopathological contribution to the well-known association between CMV infection and poor graft survival. All these basic and clinical studies paved the road to the development of a future γδ T cell-based immunotherapy. In the meantime, γδ T cell monitoring should prove a valuable immunological biomarker in the management of CMV infection.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:3. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00003

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