Inhibition of progesterone production in human luteinized granulosa cells treated with LXR agonists.
ABSTRACT Progesterone production by luteal cells is dependent on the supply of cholesterol by lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether the liver X receptors (LXRs) contribute to cholesterol homeostasis and progesterone secretion in human luteinized granulosa cells. Cells were isolated from follicular aspirates of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Luteinization was induced by a 7-day treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin. LXR beta was expressed at higher levels than LXR alpha in granulosa cells and its expression was increased during luteinization. Treatment of luteinized granulosa cells by LXR agonists induced a significant time- and dose-dependent reduction in progesterone secretion (50% reductions after a 7-day treatment with 1-microM of either GW3965 or T0901317). mRNA levels of steroidogenic genes including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450 side-chain cleavage were only moderately affected by LXR activation, with a significant reduction that was observed at 10 microM agonist concentration. Cellular cholesterol was markedly reduced after treatment with LXR agonists as a result of an increased cholesterol efflux that was related to the induction of LXR target genes (ABCA1, ABCG1, apo E, PLTP). Our study identifies LXRs as new, key actors contributing to regulation of cholesterol metabolism and steroidogenesis in luteinized granulosa cells.
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ABSTRACT: The human placenta, in addition to its roles as a nutrient transfer and endocrine organ, functions as a selective barrier to protect the fetus against the harmful effects of exogenous and endogenous toxins. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins limit the entry of xenobiotics into the fetal circulation via vectorial efflux from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Several members of the ABC family, including proteins from the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC and ABCG subfamilies, have been shown to be functional in the placenta with clinically significant roles in xenobiotic efflux. However, recent findings suggest that these transporters also protect placental tissue by preventing the cellular accumulation of cytotoxic compounds such as lipids, sterols and their derivatives. Such protective functions are likely to be particularly important in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory or oxidative stress, where the generation of toxic metabolites is enhanced. For example, ABC transporters have been shown to protect against the harmful effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress through increased expression and efflux of oxysterols and glutathione conjugated xenobiotics. However, this protective capacity may be diminished in response to the same stressors. Several studies in primary human trophoblast cells and animal models have demonstrated decreased expression and activity of placental ABC transporters with inflammatory, oxidative or metabolic stress. Several clinical studies in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory conditions such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes support these findings, although further studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the relationships between placental ABC transporter expression and activity, and placental function in stressed pregnancies. Such studies are necessary to fully understand the consequences of pregnancy disorders on placental function and viability in order to optimise pregnancy care and maximise fetal growth and healthChemico-Biological Interactions 03/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
Article: Direct rosiglitazone action on steroidogenesis and proinflammatory factor production in human granulosa-lutein cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ovarian granulosa cells are the predominant source of estradiol and progesterone biosynthesis in vivo. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), is applied as the treatment of insulin resistance including women with PCOS. The aim of the study was to investigate the direct effects of rosiglitazone on steroidogenesis and proinflammatory factor production in human granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs). Primary human GLCs were separated during in vitro fertilization and cultured in the presence of rosiglitazone, GW9662 (an antagonist of PPAR gamma) and hCG. The mRNA expression of key steroidogenic factors including 3beta- hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), cytochrome P-450 scc (CYP11A1), cytochrome P-450 aromatase (CYP19A1), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Estradiol and progesterone levels in GLCs cultures were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and the proinflammtory factors (TNFalpha and IL-6) in conditioned culture media were measured by ELISA. PPAR gamma mRNA levels increased up to 3.24 fold by rosiglitazone at the concentration of 30 microM compared to control (P<0.05). hCG alone or hCG with rosiglitazone had no significant effects on PPAR gamma mRNA levels. The CYP19A1 mRNA level at exposure to rosiglitazone alone showed a drop, but was not significantly reduced comparing to control. The expression levels of enzymes 3beta-HSD and CYP11A1 in all treatments did not alter significantly. The StAR mRNA expression at exposure to rosiglitazone was significantly increased comparing to control (P<0.05). The media concentrations of E2 and progesterone by rosiglitazone treatment showed a declining trend comparing to control or cotreatment with hCG, which did not reach significance. Most importantly, treatment with rosiglitazone decreased TNFalpha secretion in a statistically significant manner compared with control (P<0.05). The concentration of IL-6 following rosiglitazone exposure did not significantly decrease comparing to control. In cultured GLCs, rosiglitazone stimulated StAR expression, but did not significantly affect steroidogenic enzymes, as well as E2 and progesterone production. Moreover, rosiglitazone significantly decreased the production of TNFalpha in human GLCs, suggesting that PPAR gamma may play a role in the regulation of GLCs functions through inhibiting proinflammatory factors.Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 12/2009; 7:147. · 2.05 Impact Factor
Article: Liver X receptor (LXR) and the reproductive system--a potential novel target for therapeutic intervention.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and beta are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the removal of cholesterol from cells by high-density lipoproteins, the transport of cholesterol to the liver and the biliary excretion of cholesterol. LXRs are activated by oxygenated cholesterol derivatives such as 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol or 24(S)-, 25- and 27-hydroxycholesterol. In this review, we will discuss the role of LXR in the reproductive system and perspectives on the application of LXR agonists in the treatment of reproductive pathologies. Interestingly, progressive age-related impairment of fertility is observed in both female and male LXR knockout mice. Reduced fertility in female LXR knockout mice is associated with resistance to follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS), the intermediate of cholesterol synthesis generated in the ovaries that is responsible for stimulating oocyte meiosis partially in a LXR-dependent manner. Female mice lacking both LXR isoforms exhibit symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome when treated with pharmacological doses of gonadotropins. LXR agonists have mainly been considered as potential anti-atherosclerotic medications. However, experimental studies suggest that natural or synthetic LXR agonists may also effectively treat some reproductive pathologies, such as infertility, impaired uterine contractility, hormone-dependent cancers and insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. However, the specific adverse effects of LXR agonists on the reproductive system must also be considered. Adverse effects of LXR agonists include impaired trophoblast invasion, excessive transplacental cholesterol transport from the mother to the fetus leading to fetal hypercholesterolemia, and augmented estrogen deficiency after menopause.Pharmacological reports: PR 62(1):15-27. · 2.44 Impact Factor