The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions have been previously validated as a 3-item screen for alcohol misuse and implemented nationwide in Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient clinics. However, the AUDIT-C's validity and optimal screening threshold(s) in other clinical populations are unknown.
This cross-sectional validation study compared screening questionnaires with standardized interviews in 392 male and 927 female adult outpatients at an academic family practice clinic from 1993 to 1994. The AUDIT-C, full AUDIT, self-reported risky drinking, AUDIT question #3, and an augmented CAGE questionnaire were compared with an interview primary reference standard of alcohol misuse, defined as a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th ed. alcohol use disorder and/or drinking above recommended limits in the past year.
Based on interviews with 92% of eligible patients, 128 (33%) men and 177 (19%) women met the criteria for alcohol misuse. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) for the AUDIT-C were 0.94 (0.91, 0.96) and 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) in men and women, respectively (p=0.04). Based on AUROC curves, the AUDIT-C performed as well as the full AUDIT and significantly better than self-reported risky drinking, AUDIT question #3, or the augmented CAGE questionnaire (p-values <0.001). The AUDIT-C screening thresholds that simultaneously maximized sensitivity and specificity were > or =4 in men (sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.89) and > or =3 in women (sensitivity 0.73, specificity 0.91).
The AUDIT-C was an effective screening test for alcohol misuse in this primary care sample. Optimal screening thresholds for alcohol misuse among men (> or =4) and women (> or =3) were the same as in previously published VA studies.
"Alcohol consumption. To measure risky alcohol use, we used the AUDIT-C (Bradley et al., 2007). The AUDIT- C contains three alcohol consumption items drawn from the (10-item) AUDIT (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, de la Fuente, & Grant, 1993). "
"Validation studies of the AUDIT-C have not been conducted in resource-limited settings, although it is commonly used (Peltzer et al., 2007). In primary care populations in the United States, the AUDIT-C identified unhealthy drinkers with a sensitivity of 0.73 and specificity of 0.91 using a cutoff of ≥3 for women, and a sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.89 using a cutoff of ≥4 for men (Bradley et al., 2007). Among HIV-infected adults also in the United States, and using the full 10-item AUDIT as the gold standard, the AUDIT-C had a sensitivity of 0.81 to 0.89 and specificity of 0.91 to 1.0 using a cutoff of 4, and sensitivity of 0.94 to 0.98 and specificity of 0.82 to 0.91 at a cutoff of 3 for detecting unhealthy drinking (Strauss and Rindskopf, 2009). "
"t al . , 1998 ; Gual et al . , 2002 ) , including epidemiological studies such as the Health barometer ( in French : " Baromètre de Santé " ) , but does not have a French validation known to date . A score equal or superior to four for males and equal or superior to three for females indicates alcohol consump - tion at risk of becoming dependent ( Bradley et al . , 2007 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (AUDIT-C), tobacco (HSI) and cannabis (CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8% and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field.
Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6(501). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00501 · 2.80 Impact Factor
Amy A. Herrold, Angelle M. Sander, Kimberlee V. Wilson, Lauren M. Scimeca, Derin J. Cobia, Hans C. Breiter
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