S100A8 is identified as a biomarker of HPV18-infected oral squamous cell carcinomas by suppression subtraction hybridization, clinical proteomics analysis, and immunohistochemistry staining.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this work is to differentiate between the Human papillomaviruses 18 positive (HPV18+) and negative (HPV18-) oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in oral cancer patients with cancer-associated oral habits (betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking). Both gene and protein expression profiles of HPV18+ and HPV18- OSCC were compared: we then further explored the biological effect of HPV in oral cancer. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH), clinical proteomics analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were carried out in the HPV18+ and HPV18- OSCC groups. HPV typing detection revealed that 11 OSCC tissues from 82 patients were positive for HPV18. The SSH experiment showed that 4 cancer-associated genes were highly transcribed within 11 cDNA libraries of HPV18+ OSCC, including poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase I (PARP1), replication protein A2 (RPA2), S100A8, and S100A2. Clinical proteomics analysis indicated that there was over 10-fold overexpression of Stratifin, F-actin capping protein alpha-1 subunit (CapZ alpha-1), Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), Heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), Arginase-1, p16INK4A, and S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) in HPV18+ OSCC. Interestingly, the results from SSH and protemics analysis showed that S100A8 was overexpressed in HPV18+ OSCC. Moreover, IHC staining demonstrated that S100A8 was up-regulated in HPV18+ OSCC tissues. Our results suggest that S100A8 plays an important role in oral carcinogenesis following HPV18 infection; therefore, S100A8 may be a powerful biomarker of HPV18 as well as a potential therapeutic target for HPV18+ OSCC patients. The study is the first to identify S100A8 as a biomarker in HPV-associated cancer. Furthermore, this is also the first study to discover a biomarker by combining SSH, clinical proteomics, and IHC stain analysis in oral cancer-associated research.
Article: Discovery and verification of head-and-neck cancer biomarkers by differential protein expression analysis using iTRAQ labeling, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multidimensional LC-MS/MS has been used for the analysis of biological samples labeled with isobaric mass tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) in relation to non-cancerous head-and-neck tissues (controls) for cancer biomarker discovery. Fifteen individual samples (cancer and non-cancerous tissues) were compared against a pooled non-cancerous control (prepared by pooling equal amounts of proteins from six non-cancerous tissues) in five sets by on-line and off-line separation. We identified 811 non-redundant proteins in HNSCCs, including structural proteins, signaling components, enzymes, receptors, transcription factors, and chaperones. A panel of proteins showing consistent differential expression in HNSCC relative to the non-cancerous controls was discovered. Some of the proteins include stratifin (14-3-3sigma); YWHAZ (14-3-3zeta); three calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family, S100-A2, S100-A7 (psoriasin), and S100-A11 (calgizarrin); prothymosin alpha (PTHA); L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain; glutathione S-transferase Pi; APC-binding protein EB1; and fascin. Peroxiredoxin2, carbonic anhydrase I, flavin reductase, histone H3, and polybromo-1D (BAF180) were underexpressed in HNSCCs. A panel of the three best performing biomarkers, YWHAZ, stratifin, and S100-A7, achieved a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.91 in discriminating cancerous from non-cancerous head-and-neck tissues. Verification of differential expression of YWHAZ, stratifin, and S100-A7 proteins in clinical samples of HNSCCs and paired and non-paired non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in head-and-neck cancer. Verification of YWHAZ, stratifin, and S100-A7 in an independent set of HNSCCs achieved a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.87 in discriminating cancerous from non-cancerous head-and-neck tissues, thereby confirming their overexpressions and utility as credible cancer biomarkers.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 07/2008; 7(6):1162-73. · 7.40 Impact Factor
Article: Overview of current and future biologically based targeted therapies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and systems biology have unraveled the complex aberrant signaling networks in cancer. The knowledge accrued has dramatically increased the opportunities for discovery of novel molecular targets for drug development. Major emphasis is being laid on designing new therapeutic strategies targeting multiple signaling pathways for more effective disease management. However, the translation of in vitro findings to patient management often poses major challenges that limit their clinical efficacy. Here we will discuss how understanding the dysregulated signaling networks can explain the pitfalls in translating the laboratory findings from the bench-to-bedside and suggest novel approaches to overcome these problems using head and neck cancer as a prototype. The five year survival rates of HNSCC patients (about 50% at 5 years) have not improved significantly despite advancements in multimodality therapy including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Molecular targeted therapies with inhibitors of EGFR and VEGF either alone, or in combination with conventional treatments have shown limited improved efficacy. The key deregulated signaling pathways in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) include EGFR, Ras, TGFbeta, NFkappaB, Stat, Wnt/beta-catenin and PI3-K/AKT/mTOR. The aberrant activities of these interrelated signaling pathways contribute to HNSCC development. In depth understanding of the cross-talks between these pathways and networks will form the basis of developing novel strategies for targeting multiple molecular components for more effective prevention and treatment of HNSCC.Head & Neck Oncology 02/2009; 1:6. · 3.13 Impact Factor
Article: Zinc deficiency activates S100A8 inflammation in the absence of COX-2 and promotes murine oral-esophageal tumor progression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zinc (Zn)-deficiency (ZD) is implicated in the pathogenesis of human oral-esophageal cancers. Previously, we showed that in ZD mice genetic deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) enhances N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced forestomach carcinogenesis. By contrast, Cox-2 deletion offers protection in Zn-sufficient (ZS) mice. We hypothesize that ZD activates pathways insensitive to COX-2 inhibition, thereby promoting carcinogenesis. This hypothesis is tested in a Cox-2(-/-) mouse tongue cancer model that mimics pharmacologic blockade of COX-2 by firstly examining transcriptome profiles of forestomach mucosa from Cox-2(-/-) and wild-type mice on a ZD vs. ZS diet, and secondly investigating the roles of identified markers in mouse forestomach/tongue preneoplasia and carcinomas. In Cox-2(-/-) mice exposed to the tongue carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, dietary ZD elicited tongue/esophagus/forestomach carcinomas that were prevented by ZS. The precancerous ZD:Cox-2(-/-) vs. ZS:Cox-2(-/-) forestomach had an inflammatory signature with upregulation of the proinflammation genes S100a8 and S100a9. Bioinformatics analysis revealed overrepresentation of inflammation processes comprising S100a8/a9 and an nuclear factor (NF)-κB network with connectivity to S100A8. Immunohistochemistry revealed co-overexpression of S100A8, its heterodimeric partner S100A9, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), NF-κB p65, and cyclin D1, in ZD:Cox-2(-/-) forestomach/tongue preneoplasia and carcinomas, evidence for the activation of a RAGE-S100A8/A9 inflammatory pathway. Accumulation of p53 in these carcinomas indicated activation of additional inflammatory pathways. Zn-replenishment in ZD:Cox-2(-/-) mice reversed the inflammation and inhibited carcinogenesis. Thus, ZD activates alternative inflammation-associated cancer pathways that fuel tumor progression and bypass the antitumor effect of Cox-2 ablation. These findings have important clinical implications, as combination cancer therapy that includes Zn may improve efficacy.International Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 129(2):331-45. · 5.44 Impact Factor