Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with codon optimized HA gene in a pCAGGS plasmid vector.
ABSTRACT H5N1 influenza viruses have caused significant disease and deaths in various parts of the world in several species, including humans. Vaccination combined with culling can provide an attractive method for outbreak containment. Using synthesized oligos and overlapping extension PCR techniques, we constructed an H5 HA gene, optiHA, containing chicken biased codons based on the HA amino acid sequence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/96). The optiHA and wild-type HA genes were inserted into plasmids pCI or pCAGGS, and designated as pCIoptiHA, pCAGGoptiHA, pCIHA and pCAGGHA, respectively. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were intramuscularly injected with the four plasmids. Sera were collected on a weekly basis post-vaccination (p.v.) for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and neutralization (NT) antibody detection. All chickens receiving pCAGGoptiHA and pCAGGHA developed high levels of HI and NT antibodies at 3 weeks p.v., and were completely protected from lethal H5 virus challenge, while only partial protection was induced by inoculation with the other two plasmids. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate if a lower dose of the pCAGGoptiHA vaccine could be effective, results indicated that two doses of 10 microg of pCAGGoptiHA could induce complete protection in chickens against H5 lethal virus challenge. Based on our results, we conclude that construction optimization could dramatically increase the H5 HA gene DNA vaccine efficacy in chickens, and therefore, greatly decrease the dose necessary for inducing complete protection in chickens.
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ABSTRACT: H5 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in domestic ducks is a major problem in duck producing countries. Their silent circulation is an ongoing source of potential highly pathogenic or zoonotic emerging strains. To prevent such events, vaccination of domestic ducks might be attempted but remains challenging. Currently licensed vector vaccines derived from H5N1 HPAIV possess clade 0, clade 2.2 or clade 2.3.4 HA sequences: selection of the best HA candidate inducing the largest cross protection is a key issue. For this purpose, DNA immunization of specific pathogen free Muscovy ducks was performed using different synthetic codon optimized (opt) or native HA genes from H5N2 LPAIV and several H5N1 HPAIV clade 2.1, 2.2.1 and 2.3.4. Humoral cross-immunity was assessed 3 weeks after boost by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) against three French H5 LPAIV antigens. Vaccination with LP H5N2 HA induced the highest VN antibody titre against the homologous antigen; however, the corresponding HI titre was lower and comparable to HI titres obtained after immunization with opt HA derived from clades 2.3.4 or 2.1. Compared to the other HPAIV-derived constructs, vaccination with clade 2.3.4 opt HA consistently induced the highest antibody titres in HI and VN, when tested against all three H5 LPAIV antigens and H5N2 LPAIV, respectively: differences in titres against this last strain were statistically significant. The present study provides a standardized method to assess cross-immunity based on HA immunogenicity alone, and suggests that clade 2.3.4-derived recombinant vaccines might be the optimal candidates for further challenge testing to vaccinate domestic Muscovy ducks against H5 LPAIV.Virology Journal 04/2014; 11(1):74. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI.Trends in Biotechnology 01/2014; · 9.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry because of high mortality rate in infected flocks and trade restrictions. Protective antibodies, directed mainly against hemagglutinin (HA), are the primary means of protection against influenza outbreaks. A recombinant DNA vaccine based on the sequence of H5 HA from the H5N1/A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 strain of HPAIV was prepared. Sequence manipulation included deletion of the proteolytic cleavage site to improve protein stability, codon usage optimization to improve translation and stability of RNA in host cells, and cloning into a commercially available vector to enable expression in animal cells. Naked plasmid DNA was complexed with a liposomal carrier and the immunization followed the prime–boost strategy. The immunogenic potential of the DNA vaccine was first proved in broilers in near-to-field conditions resembling a commercial farm. Next, the protective activity of the vaccine was confirmed in SPF layer-type chickens. Experimental infections (challenge experiments) indicated that 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against H5N1 of the same clade and that 70% of them were protected against H5N1 influenza virus of a different clade. Moreover, the DNA vaccine significantly limited (or even eliminated) transmission of the virus to contact control chickens. Two intramuscular doses of DNA vaccine encoding H5 HA induced a strong protective response in immunized chicken. The effective protection lasted for a minimum 8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine and was not limited to the homologous H5N1 virus. In addition, the vaccine reduced shedding of the virus.Trials in Vaccinology. 01/2014; 3:40–46.