San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply focused on the PCB sources that are controllable and contributing most to PCB impairment in the Bay. Urban runoff from local watersheds is a particularly significant pathway for PCB entry into the Bay. Significant loads also enter the Bay through Delta outflow (riverine input). Recent studies have shown that erosion of buried sediment is occurring in large regions of the Bay, posing a significant problem with respect to recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination because the sediments being eroded and remobilized are from relatively contaminated buried sediment deposits. In-Bay contaminated sites are likely also a major contributor of PCBs to the Bay food web. Dredged material disposal, wastewater effluent, and atmospheric deposition are relatively minor pathways for PCB loading to the Bay. Priority information needs at present relate to understanding the sources, magnitude of loads, and effectiveness of management options for urban runoff; the regional influence of in-Bay contaminated sites; remobilization of PCBs from buried sediment; historic and present trends; in situ degradation rates of PCBs; reliable recovery forecasts under different management scenarios; the spatial distribution of PCBs in soils and sediments; and the biological effects of PCBs in interaction with other stressors. The slow release of pollutants from the watershed and the slow response of the Bay to changes in inputs combine to make this ecosystem very slow to recover from pollution of the watershed. The history of PCB contamination in the Bay underscores the importance of preventing persistent, particle-associated pollutants from entering this sensitive ecosystem.
"During recent decades, harbor seal populations in SF Bay have been increasing at a slower rate than other locations along the Pacific coast (Harvey et al. 1990; Sydeman and Allen 1999; Neale et al. 2005; Davis et al. 2007). A number of contributing factors have been hypothesized such as harassment, reduction or change in prey resources, and environmental contamination (Kopec and Harvey 1995; Grigg et al. 2004); however specific causes for a lessthan-expected population growth rate remain largely undetermined . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monomethylmercury (MeHg(+)) is an environmental pollutant, which at sufficiently high exposures, has induced neurotoxicosis in several animal species, including humans. Adverse neurological effects due to gestational exposure are of particular concern as MeHg(+) readily crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers. The degree to which environmental concentrations in marine prey affect free-living piscivorous wildlife, however, remains largely undetermined. We examined associations of gestational exposures to mercury on neurodevelopment and survival using hair and blood concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) in a stranded population of Pacific harbor seal pups from central California. A positive association was determined for the presence of abnormal neurological symptoms and increasing [THg] in blood (P = 0.04), but not hair. Neither hair nor blood [THg] was significantly associated with survival, or the neurodevelopmental milestone 'free-feeding', which was measured from the onset of hand-assisted feeding to the time at which pups were able to consume fish independently. Both hair and blood [THg] exceeded threshold values considered potentially toxic to humans and other mammalian wildlife species. The higher [THg] in blood associated with abnormal neurological symptoms may indicate an adverse effect of this pollutant on neurodevelopment in harbor seal pups. These data have broader implications with respect to human health and public policy as harbor seals and humans consume similar fish species, and it is possible that safeguard levels established for marine mammals could also extend to human populations that regularly consume fish.
"The San Francisco Estuary is subject to diverse anthropogenic pressures, including the release of numerous contaminants that have greatly altered the functioning of this ecosystem (Bennett and Moyle 1996; Sommer et al. 2007; Strange 2008). Among contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are widespread in the Estuary (Davis et al. 2007; Oros et al. 2007). These chemicals generally occur as complex mixtures originating from a variety of sources: storm water runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, atmospheric deposition and dredged material disposal. "
"As part of the blind sampling scheme, and as a result of the budget available for PCB analysis, 25 of the 29 samples collected were randomly selected and analyzed for PCBs using a modified Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8270 method protocol (semi-volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)). A total of 40 PCB congeners were analyzed in the caulk samples: the congeners frequently detected in the highest concentrations in San Francisco Bay sport fish (IUPAC PCBs 8, 18, 28, 31, 33, 44, 49, 52, 56, 60, 66, 70, 74, 87, 95, 97, 99, 101, l05, 110, 118, 128, 132, 138, 141, 149, l51, 153, 156, 158, 170, 174, 177, 180, 183, 187, 194, 195, 201, and 203: Davis et al., 2007); PCB 11, a non-Aroclor congener commonly detected in wastewater effluent and environmental samples (Rodenburg et al., 2010); and the coplanar PCBs 77, 126, and 169, 'dioxin-like' congeners which contribute substantially to the dioxin toxic equivalents observed in San Francisco Bay sport fish (Davis et al., 2007) were also analyzed. Quality assurance procedures included the analysis of laboratory method blank samples, duplicate samples, and a laboratory-fortified matrix spike. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release.
Environment international 05/2014; 66:38–43. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.008 · 5.56 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.