To estimate the rate of new chronic benzodiazepine use after hospitalization in older adults not previously prescribed with benzodiazepines.
Retrospective cohort study using linked, population-based administrative data.
Ontario, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2005.
Community-dwelling seniors who had not been prescribed benzodiazepine drugs in the year before hospitalization were selected from all 1.4 million Ontario residents aged 66 years and older.
New chronic benzodiazepine users, defined as initiation of benzodiazepines within 7 days after hospital discharge and an additional claim within 8 days to 6 months. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine for the effect of hospitalization on the primary outcome after adjusting for confounders.
There were 405,128 patient hospitalizations included in the cohort. Benzodiazepines were prescribed to 12,484 (3.1%) patients within 7 days of being discharged from hospital. A total of 6,136 (1.5%) patients were identified as new chronic benzodiazepine users. The rate of new chronic benzodiazepine users decreased over the study period from 1.8% in the first year to 1.2% in the final year (P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression found that women, patients admitted to the intensive care unit or nonsurgical wards, those with longer hospital stays, higher overall comorbidity, a prior diagnosis of alcoholism, and those prescribed more medications had significantly elevated adjusted odds ratios for new chronic benzodiazepine users. Older individuals had a lower risk for the primary outcome.
New benzodiazepine prescription after hospitalization occurs frequently in older adults and may result in chronic use. A systemic effort to address this risky practice should be considered.
"Although the relationship between bed days and benzodiazepine prescription has been studied in several Western countries, the number of subjects was relatively small (<1,000) [12-16], the analysis was limited to the elderly [12,13,17] or to those at limited departments [12,14,15], or the diagnostic information was not controlled for in the analyses [4,18]. The findings are inconsistent among such Western studies, and no empirical study has been conducted on these issues in Japanese hospitals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between bed days and benzodiazepine prescription (BDZ) in Western countries is inconclusive, and no hospital-based report has documented this phenomenon in Japan. This study was done to assess the association between bed days and BDZ in a Japanese hospital.
21,489 adult patients (55.1% men, mean age 59.9 years old) hospitalized between April, 2005 and December, 2006 were enrolled in the study. Patient age, sex, ICD-10 diagnosis, prescription profile, and days of hospital stay were assessed in 13 non-psychiatric departments using a computer ordering system. Patients prescribed a benzodiazepine during hospitalization were defined as positive.
Of the total sample, 19.9% were allocated to the benzodiazepine (+) group. Female sex and older age were significant factors associated with benzodiazepine prescription. The median number of bed days was 13, and the likelihood of BDZ significantly increased with the number of bed days, even after controlling for the effects of age, gender, and ICD-10 diagnosis. For example, when the analysis was limited to patients with 50 bed days or longer, the percentage of BDZ (32.7%) was equivalent to that of a report from France.
Irrespective of department or disease, patients prescribed benzodiazepine during their hospital stay tended to have a higher number of bed days in the hospital. The difference in the prevalence of BDZ between this study and previous Western studies might be attributed to the relatively short length of hospital stay in this study. Because BDZs are often reported to be prescribed to hospitalized patients without appropriate documentation for the indications for use, it is important to monitor the rational for prescriptions of benzodiazepine carefully, for both clinical and economical reasons.
BioPsychoSocial Medicine 10/2009; 3:10. DOI:10.1186/1751-0759-3-10
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When comparing AC-DC current differences of thermal converters connected in series, capacitive leakage currents from the interconnecting point to the surroundings, and the heater to thermocouple capacitance can become significant, particularly at high frequencies. A method of optimising the series connection, to reduce the leakage currents to less than 5×10<sup>-6</sup> relative to the measured current, has been modelled and tested experimentally.
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