Neuropsychological data in nondemented oldest old: The 90+ Study

Institute of Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Impact Factor: 2.08). 05/2007; 29(3):290-9. DOI: 10.1080/13803390600678038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the population, little is known about their cognitive performance. Our aim was to compile a relatively brief test battery that could be completed by a majority of individuals aged 90 or over, compensates for sensory losses, and incorporates previously validated, standardized, and accessible instruments. Means, standard deviations, and percentiles for 10 neuropsychological tests covering multiple cognitive domains are reported for 339 nondemented members of the 90+ Study. Cognitive performance declined with age for two-thirds of the tests. Performance on some tests was also affected by gender, education, and depression scores.

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Available from: María M Corrada, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "As a result, investigators studying participants older than 80 years will turn to norms developed for younger cohorts. Mayo's Older American Normative Studies (MOANS; Lucas et al., 2005) and Whittle and colleagues (2007) study examining the oldest old (90+ years) provide valuable normative data on select subtests. Given census data indicating that the population of individuals aged 85 years and older is the fastest growing age group, there will continue to be a pressing need to develop age-appropriate and age-normed tests. "
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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpret studies. This paper addresses important factors in study design, patient demographics, co-morbid and incipient medical conditions, and assessment instruments that will allow researchers to optimize the characterization of healthy participants and produce meaningful and generalizable research outcomes from studies of cognitive aging. Application of knowledge from well-designed studies should be useful in clinical settings to facilitate the earliest possible recognition of disease and guide appropriate interventions to best meet the needs of the affected individual and public health priorities.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 09/2012; 4:23. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2012.00023 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    • "The full clinical evaluation includes a neurological exam (with mental status testing and assessment of functional abilities) by a trained physician or nurse practitioner and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery [7] (including the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE; score range: 0-30) [8]). Participants evaluated by phone complete the short version of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASIshort ; score range: 0-34) [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Population-based longitudinal clinicopathological studies provide an ideal opportunity to study a variety of risk and protective factors in relation to pathology associated with dementia in individuals who are representative of the general population. The 90+ Study is a population-based study designed specifically to study aging and dementia as well as its neuropathological correlates in participants 90 years of age and older. We present demographic and pathological data on the first 104 participants to come to autopsy from the brain donation component of the study, The 90+ Autopsy Study. Cognitive diagnosis was assigned according to diagnostic and statistical manual 4th edition criteria for dementia and neuropathological diagnoses were made according to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease protocol. Dementia was present in 61% of autopsied participants, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (85%). Many different types of pathology typically associated with dementia were common in the oldest-old, and included neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, diffuse plaques, Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, and cerebral infarctions. Most types of pathology were more frequently found in participants suffering from dementia but there was extensive overlap in pathology among those with and without dementia. In addition, 22% of demented participants did not have sufficient pathology to account for their cognitive loss. Our results highlight the poor associations between these common pathological lesions and dementia in the oldest-old and the importance of considering many different types of pathology, possibly including some yet to be identified, in order to account for all dementias in the oldest-old.
    Current Alzheimer research 04/2012; 9(6):709-17. DOI:10.2174/156720512801322537 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Most subjects were recruited from the local Orange County community through newspaper advertisements and flyers. Other subjects were recruited from the control cohort of University of California, Irvine Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, and the study cohort of an on-going longitudinal study (the '90+' study; Whittle et al., 2007). Four additional subjects were excluded from the present dataset. "
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    ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging studies have reported that the neural correlates of retrieval success (old>new effects) are larger and more widespread in older than in young adults. In the present study we investigated whether this pattern of age-related 'over-recruitment' continues into advanced age. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), retrieval-related activity from two groups (N=18 per group) of older adults aged 84-96 years ('old-old') and 64-77 years ('young-old') was contrasted. Subjects studied a series of pictures, half of which were presented once, and half twice. At test, subjects indicated whether each presented picture was old or new. Recognition performance of the old-old subjects for twice-studied items was equivalent to that of the young-old subjects for once-studied items. Old>new effects common to the two groups were identified in several cortical regions, including medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortex. There were no regions where these effects were of greater magnitude in the old-old group, and thus no evidence of over-recruitment in this group relative to the young-old individuals. In one region of medial parietal cortex, effects were greater (and only significant) in the young-old group. The failure to find evidence of over-recruitment in the old-old subjects relative to the young-old group, despite their markedly poorer cognitive performance, suggests that age-related over-recruitment effects plateau in advanced age. The findings for the medial parietal cortex underscore the sensitivity of this cortical region to increasing age.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2009; 47(5):1352-61. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.01.030 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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