Neuropsychological data in nondemented oldest old: The 90+ Study

Institute of Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Impact Factor: 2.08). 05/2007; 29(3):290-9. DOI: 10.1080/13803390600678038
Source: PubMed


Although the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the population, little is known about their cognitive performance. Our aim was to compile a relatively brief test battery that could be completed by a majority of individuals aged 90 or over, compensates for sensory losses, and incorporates previously validated, standardized, and accessible instruments. Means, standard deviations, and percentiles for 10 neuropsychological tests covering multiple cognitive domains are reported for 339 nondemented members of the 90+ Study. Cognitive performance declined with age for two-thirds of the tests. Performance on some tests was also affected by gender, education, and depression scores.

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Available from: María M Corrada,
    • "" Scarce studies have provided norms for the oldest-old population. In the 90+ Study, authors have established normative data for various neuropsychological tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975) and the California Verbal Learning Test-II Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000; Whittle et al., 2007). In this study, norms were based on a particular population. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is an obvious lack of validated norms for elderly persons aged 85 and older for the large majority of the neuropsychological tests used in clinical practice. Yet this range of "oldest-old" individuals drastically increases worldwide and is the more likely to develop dementia. Providing clinicians validated and updated norms to accurately evaluate cognitive functioning in this population is an important issue in geriatrics. This study provides normative scores for 7 neuropsychological tests commonly used in clinical practice. Data were collected in a sample of 283 subjects aged 85 and older, included in the PAQUID study, a population-based cohort conducted in France. Normative scores were calculated according to 2 age ranges and 2 educational levels, and are presented in percentiles. The norms provided in the present study involve 7 tests that are widely used in the neuropsychological assessment of geriatrics populations and should be of help for clinicians.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/arclin/acv055 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    • "As a result, investigators studying participants older than 80 years will turn to norms developed for younger cohorts. Mayo's Older American Normative Studies (MOANS; Lucas et al., 2005) and Whittle and colleagues (2007) study examining the oldest old (90+ years) provide valuable normative data on select subtests. Given census data indicating that the population of individuals aged 85 years and older is the fastest growing age group, there will continue to be a pressing need to develop age-appropriate and age-normed tests. "
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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpret studies. This paper addresses important factors in study design, patient demographics, co-morbid and incipient medical conditions, and assessment instruments that will allow researchers to optimize the characterization of healthy participants and produce meaningful and generalizable research outcomes from studies of cognitive aging. Application of knowledge from well-designed studies should be useful in clinical settings to facilitate the earliest possible recognition of disease and guide appropriate interventions to best meet the needs of the affected individual and public health priorities.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 09/2012; 4:23. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2012.00023 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    • "The full clinical evaluation includes a neurological exam (with mental status testing and assessment of functional abilities) by a trained physician or nurse practitioner and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery [7] (including the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE; score range: 0-30) [8]). Participants evaluated by phone complete the short version of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASIshort ; score range: 0-34) [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Population-based longitudinal clinicopathological studies provide an ideal opportunity to study a variety of risk and protective factors in relation to pathology associated with dementia in individuals who are representative of the general population. The 90+ Study is a population-based study designed specifically to study aging and dementia as well as its neuropathological correlates in participants 90 years of age and older. We present demographic and pathological data on the first 104 participants to come to autopsy from the brain donation component of the study, The 90+ Autopsy Study. Cognitive diagnosis was assigned according to diagnostic and statistical manual 4th edition criteria for dementia and neuropathological diagnoses were made according to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease protocol. Dementia was present in 61% of autopsied participants, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (85%). Many different types of pathology typically associated with dementia were common in the oldest-old, and included neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, diffuse plaques, Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, and cerebral infarctions. Most types of pathology were more frequently found in participants suffering from dementia but there was extensive overlap in pathology among those with and without dementia. In addition, 22% of demented participants did not have sufficient pathology to account for their cognitive loss. Our results highlight the poor associations between these common pathological lesions and dementia in the oldest-old and the importance of considering many different types of pathology, possibly including some yet to be identified, in order to account for all dementias in the oldest-old.
    Current Alzheimer research 04/2012; 9(6):709-17. DOI:10.2174/156720512801322537 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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