Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
ABSTRACT We present diffusion-weighted imaging findings of a case of rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. It is a rare, life-threatening disorder. The diagnosis is difficult by clinical findings only. In this report, we aim to draw attention to the role of conventional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature with apparent diffusion coefficient values of diseased brain parenchyma.
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ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium that has predilection for causing central nervous systemic infections in humans and domesticated animals. This pathogen can be found worldwide in the food supply and most L. monocytogenes infections are acquired through ingestion of contaminated food. The main clinical syndromes caused by L. monocytogenes include febrile gastroenteritis, perinatal infection, and systemic infections marked by central nervous system infections with or without bacteremia. Experimental infection of mice has been used for over 50 years as a model system to study the pathogenesis of this organism including the mechanisms by which it invades the brain. Data from this model indicate that a specific subset of monocytes, distinguished in part by high expression of the Ly-6C antigen, become parasitized in the bone marrow and have a key role in transporting intracellular bacteria across the blood-brain barriers and into the central nervous system. This Minireview will summarize recent epidemiologic and clinical information regarding L. monocytogenes as a human pathogen and will discuss current in vitro and in vivo data relevant to the role of parasitized monocytes and the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie its formidable ability to invade the central nervous system.FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 08/2008; 53(2):151-65. · 2.68 Impact Factor
Chapter: Clinical Applications of Diffusion[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a technique based on diffusion of water molecules in tissues, with clinical applications to a wide array of pathological conditions. Currently, DWI is the most reliable method for detection of early and small ischemic infarcts in the brain and the gold standard for determination of the infarct core. DWI is also an important sequence for characterization of various neoplastic conditions such as epidermoid tumors, lymphomas, and high-grade astrocytomas and enables distinction of pyogenic abscesses from ring-enhancing intracranial neoplasms. Additional applications of DWI include differentiation of vasogenic edema syndromes from acute ischemia, identification of acute demyelinating lesions, and characterization of encephalitides, toxic and metabolic lesions, and diffuse axonal injury. This chapter provides an overview of current clinical applications of DWI as well as potential future applications of DWI currently under investigation, including its use for prediction of complications and outcomes of ischemic strokes and distinction of tumor progression from treatment-related changes.12/2011: pages 13-52;