Contribution of reference electrode to the compound muscle action potential
Viasys Health Care, 5225 Verona Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 52217, USA. Muscle & Nerve
(Impact Factor: 2.28).
07/2007; 36(1):87-92. DOI: 10.1002/mus.20798
In compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recording, the contribution by the reference electrode is considered to be much smaller than that of the active electrode. We tested this assumption by making quantitative measurements of the signals recorded individually by the active and reference electrodes. In the thenar (median nerve) and extensor digitorum brevis (peroneal nerve) muscles, the reference electrode did contribute less. In the hypothenar muscle (ulnar nerve), however, the signals recorded by active and reference electrodes were of similar amplitude. In tibial nerve conduction studies (NCS), the CMAP from the abductor hallucis (AH) muscle was recorded mainly by the reference electrode; the large-amplitude signal recorded by the reference electrode is attributed to volume-conducted activity from other muscles stimulated during the study. The onset latency of the potential recorded by the active and reference electrodes was similar despite significantly different distances from the stimulating site. Hence, the merits of using anatomic landmarks for defining the distal stimulation site are assessed. When the reference electrode makes a large contribution, the CMAP amplitude may not decrease commensurate with any wasting of the muscle under the active recording electrode, and the need to use another muscle for recording the CMAP for that nerve should be considered.
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- "However, it has been shown that E2 can be electrically active.16,17 A recent study18 measured the signals recorded individually by E1 and E2 in order to assess the contribution of E2 to the signal. Significant contributions from E2 were observed, especially in the hypothenar and abductor hallucis muscles. "
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ABSTRACT: Electrodiagnostic testing is used widely for the full characterization of neuromuscular disorders and for providing unique information on the processes underlying the pathology of peripheral nerves and muscles. However, such testing should be considered as an extension of anamnesis and physical examination, not as pathognomonic of a specific disease entity. There are many pitfalls that could lead to erroneous interpretation of electrophysiological study results when the studies are not performed properly or if they are performed in the presence of anatomical aberrations. The diagnostic reliability of electrodiagnostic studies can be improved and the associated pitfalls overcome if the physician is familiar with all of those possible pitfalls. In this article we discuss the most common and important pitfalls associated with electrodiagnostic medicine.
Journal of Clinical Neurology 03/2012; 8(1):1-14. DOI:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.1.1 · 1.70 Impact Factor
Available from: Mamede de carvalho
- "The CMAP may be generated by many muscles (e.g. AH, see above) with significant contribution from the reference recording electrode (Nandedkar and Barkhaus, 2007). The SIP only comes from motor units within a depth of less than 20 mm directly under the recording surface electrode (Barkhaus and Nandedkar, 1994) In large muscles like the biceps the uptake area of the surface electrode is smaller than the size of muscle. "
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater test-retest reliability of the Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) in healthy subjects in a multicentre setting.
Six study centres applied the MUNIX technique in 66 healthy subjects. Five to six muscles (biceps brachii, BB; abductor digiti minimi, ADM; abductor pollicis brevis, APB; tibialis anterior, TA; extensor digitorum brevis, EDB and abductor hallucis, AH) were measured in each volunteer four times by two independent examiners.
The method was easy to perform and well tolerated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) varied between centres and muscles. Intra-rater reliability was greatest for the AH (ICC 0.83) and EDB (ICC 0.81). Inter-rater reliability was greatest for the AH (ICC 0.69) and ADM muscles (ICC 0.69). The most critical muscle was the APB muscle (ICC 0.52, total variability). This was mostly due to variability in the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurements. MUNIX values of the APB, ADM and TA fell into the same range as in other motor unit number estimation (MUNE) studies.
MUNIX measurements in multiple muscles show good inter- and intra-rater reliability in healthy subjects. CMAP amplitude must be controlled to optimize reliability.
Results suggest that MUNIX could serve as a reliable marker for motor neuron loss in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2011; 122(9):1867-72. DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2011.02.017 · 3.10 Impact Factor
Available from: usask.ca
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a segmented matched filter (SMF) for codephase
acquisition in direct sequence spread spectrum systems. While
conventional matched filters provide fast acquisition in the presence of
high co-user noise, they are unable to handle significant carrier
frequency offset (Doppler). This problem is alleviated by segmentation
with non-coherent summation. The paper develops expressions to
approximately relate the matched filter partitioning to the
pre-detection filter and dwell time integrator of the conventional
non-coherent correlator. It also investigates 1-bit versus 2-bit
quantization. A mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit
(ASIC) has been fabricated to implement a 512 chip SMF with half chip
codephase resolution. The paper presents calculated and measured
probability density functions (pdf) for the filter output decision
variable for 10, 25, and 50 co-users with 0 to 20 kHz Doppler shift. For
the example of a GPS receiver, expected acquisition time is shown as a
function of multiple access interference and carrier Doppler shift
Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM '01. IEEE; 02/2001
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