Outbreak of norovirus in Västra Götaland associated with recreational activities at two lakes during August 2004.
ABSTRACT A large community outbreak of norovirus (NV) gastrointestinal infection occurred in Västra Götaland County, Sweden in August 2004, following attendance at recreational lakes. A frequency age-matched case control study was undertaken of persons who had attended these lakes to identify risk factors. 163 cases and 329 controls were included. Analysis indicates that having water in the mouth while swimming (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.1-20.2), attendance at the main swimming area at Delsjön Lake (OR=25.5; 95% CI 2.5-263.8), taking water home from a fresh water spring near Delsjön lake (OR=17.3; 95% CI 2.7-110.7) and swimming less than 20 m from shore (OR=13.4; 95% CI 2.0-90.2) were significant risk factors. The probable vehicle was local contamination of the lake water (especially at the main swimming area). The source of contamination could not be determined.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous viruses of human or animal origin can spread in the environment and infect people via water and food, mostly through ingestion and occasionally through skin contact. These viruses are released into the environment by various routes including water run-offs and aerosols. Furthermore, zoonotic viruses may infect humans exposed to contaminated surface waters. Foodstuffs of animal origin can be contaminated, and their consumption may cause human infection if the viruses are not inactivated during food processing. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of environmental samples are necessary to elucidate the public health hazards associated with exposure to environmental viruses. Whereas monitoring of viral nucleic acids by PCR methods is relatively straightforward and well documented, detection of infectious virus particles is technically more demanding and not always possible (e.g. human norovirus or hepatitis E virus). The human pathogenic viruses that are most relevant in this context are nonenveloped and belong to the families of the Caliciviridae, Adenoviridae, Hepeviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae. Sampling methods and strategies, first-choice detection methods and evaluation criteria are reviewed.FEMS Microbiology Reviews 05/2012; 36(4):786-814. · 13.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Novel chroman and tetrahydroquinoline ureas were synthesized and evaluated for their activity as TRPV1 antagonists. It was found that aryl substituents on the 7- or 8-position of both bicyclic scaffolds imparted the best in vitro potency at TRPV1. The most potent chroman ureas were assessed in chronic and acute pain models, and compounds with the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier were shown to be highly efficacious. The tetrahydroquinoline ureas were found to be potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, but replacement of bulky substituents at the nitrogen atom of the tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety with small groups such as methyl can minimize the inhibition.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 03/2011; 21(5):1338-41. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report an evaluation of the effect of various combinations of pressures and times on the inactivation of norovirus (NoV) in two types of matrices that are important in NoV transmission: water and soft fruits. The human NoV surrogate murine norovirus was used as the model virus. The effect of HHP on the viral genome was evaluated by using RT real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and infectivity assay was used to assess effects on the ability of the virus to attach to and replicate in cells. HHP treatments of 400 MPa for 2.5 min proved to be sufficient for efficient inactivation of NoV (>99.9% reduction). The efficacy of viral inactivation was highly dependent on the matrix in which the virus was present. Therefore, the effect of HHP should be carefully studied in all matrices to which HHP could potentially be applied. Finally, we found no consistent correlation between RT-qPCR and virus infectivity results, and consequently RT-qPCR is not a satisfactory tool for predicting risks to human health.International Journal of Food Microbiology 01/2012; 152(1-2):35-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor