Outbreak of norovirus in Västra Götaland associated with recreational activities at two lakes during August 2004.
ABSTRACT A large community outbreak of norovirus (NV) gastrointestinal infection occurred in Västra Götaland County, Sweden in August 2004, following attendance at recreational lakes. A frequency age-matched case control study was undertaken of persons who had attended these lakes to identify risk factors. 163 cases and 329 controls were included. Analysis indicates that having water in the mouth while swimming (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.1-20.2), attendance at the main swimming area at Delsjön Lake (OR=25.5; 95% CI 2.5-263.8), taking water home from a fresh water spring near Delsjön lake (OR=17.3; 95% CI 2.7-110.7) and swimming less than 20 m from shore (OR=13.4; 95% CI 2.0-90.2) were significant risk factors. The probable vehicle was local contamination of the lake water (especially at the main swimming area). The source of contamination could not be determined.
Article: Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2009; 47(8):2411-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Noroviruses from mussels collected near sewage effluents were compared with local patient outbreak strains. Sequence analyses of RNA polymerase-capsid-poly(A)-3' (3.1-kilobase) regions confirmed the 99.9% similarity between genotype I.1 strains from mussels and patient strains from recreational-bathing outbreaks, indicating the potential usefulness of sentinel norovirus mussel studies in tracing human norovirus contamination of coastal waters.Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2008; 74(8):2544-9. · 3.69 Impact Factor