Outbreak of norovirus in Västra Götaland associated with recreational activities at two lakes during August 2004.
ABSTRACT A large community outbreak of norovirus (NV) gastrointestinal infection occurred in Västra Götaland County, Sweden in August 2004, following attendance at recreational lakes. A frequency age-matched case control study was undertaken of persons who had attended these lakes to identify risk factors. 163 cases and 329 controls were included. Analysis indicates that having water in the mouth while swimming (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.1-20.2), attendance at the main swimming area at Delsjön Lake (OR=25.5; 95% CI 2.5-263.8), taking water home from a fresh water spring near Delsjön lake (OR=17.3; 95% CI 2.7-110.7) and swimming less than 20 m from shore (OR=13.4; 95% CI 2.0-90.2) were significant risk factors. The probable vehicle was local contamination of the lake water (especially at the main swimming area). The source of contamination could not be determined.
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ABSTRACT: The distribution of noroviruses is worldwide. In industrialized countries, noroviruses are the most common viral cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks and play an important role in sporadic gastroenteritis as well. Transmission may occur through the in-gestion of contaminated foods or water, through person-to-person contact, or by way of direct contact with contaminated surfaces. Of particular importance is their ability to cause waterborne outbreaks linked either to the direct consumption of water or to its recreational uses. This article reviews the clinical manifestations and epidemiology of norovirus infection, and describes over 40 waterborne norovirus outbreaks, their respective probable sources of contamination and – where water samples were tested – the genetic types identified.ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. 01/2008; 4:15-24.