Why do men marry and why do they stray?
ABSTRACT Humans are quite unusual compared to other great apes in that reproduction typically takes place within long-term, iteroparous pairings--social arrangements that have been culturally reified as the institution of marriage. With respect to male behaviour, explanations of marriage fall into two major schools of thought. One holds that marriage facilitates a sexual division of labour and paternal investment, both important to the rearing of offspring that are born helpless and remain dependent for remarkably long periods (provisioning model). And the other suggests that the main benefits which men receive from entering into marriage derive from monopolizing access to women's fertility (mating effort model). In this paper, we explore extramarital sexual relationships and the conditions under which they occur as a means of testing predictions derived from these two models. Using data on men's extramarital sexual relationships among Tsimane forager-horticulturists in lowland Bolivia, we tested whether infidelity was more common when men had less of an opportunity to invest in their children or when they risked losing less fertility. We found that Tsimane men appear to be biasing the timing of their affairs to when they are younger and have fewer children, supporting the provisioning model.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Michael Gurven, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: This work is a study of human olfactory communication. The article discusses results of an experiment on identifying the ability to identify some biological and psychological characteristics by odor. Female experts were presented with samples of sweat odor from men that differed in sets of anthropometric (interpupillary distance, mandibular height and width, etc.) and behavioral characteristics (NEO Personality Inventory, risk-taking, Sandra Bem’s masculinity versus femininity index, a self-rating scale on Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire). In addition, men were checked for hormonal status (testosterone and cortisol). The obtained results have confirmed the significance of information communicated through the olfactory system for rating a potential mate’s traits. Women’s ratings of male odors varied depending on the phases of their menstrual cycle.05/2013; 3(3):196-208. DOI:10.1134/S2079086413030031
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ABSTRACT: We review research on the ultimate and proximate origins of variation along the extraversion continuum. After describing the cost-benefit tradeoffs that may have maintained variation in extraversion over human evolution, we consider the evidence bearing on multiple distinct evolutionary hypotheses regarding the causal underpinnings of such variation. On the basis of the reviewed evidence, we argue that fluctuating selection on specific polymorphic genotypes is unlikely to explain the origins of individual differences in extraversion. Rather, adaptively patterned variation in extraversion is likely orchestrated primarily by facultative adaptations designed to calibrate behavioral strategies to cues available in ontogeny. For example, emerging research supports the hypothesis that extraversion may be ''reactively heritable'' by virtue of its calibration to heritable condition-dependent phenotypic features – which in turn helps explain extraversion's genetic variance, as well as its consistent positive association with reproductive success. Finally, evidence suggests that some of the inter-individual variance in extraversion is fundamentally noisy, arising as a side effect of mutation–selection balance or pleiotropic polymorphisms maintained via pathogen–host coevolution. If correct, these conclusions indicate that future research should focus on elucidating the facultative adaptations designed to regulate the production of behaviors falling on the extraversion continuum.Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.005 · 1.86 Impact Factor
Chapter: Parent-child relationshipsThe Oxford handbook of evolutionary family psychology, Edited by C. A> Salmon, T. K. Shackelford, 01/2011: pages 65-82; Oxford University Press.