Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy (Impact Factor: 4.77). 05/2007; 37(5):661-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02640.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary interventions as a means for atopy prevention attract great interest. Some studies in rural environments claimed an inverse association between consumption of farm-produced dairy products and the prevalence of allergic diseases, but current evidence is controversial.
To investigate whether consumption of farm-produced products is associated with a lower prevalence of asthma and allergy when compared with shop-purchased products.
Cross sectional multi-centre study (PARSIFAL) including 14,893 children aged 5-13 years from five European countries (2823 from farm families and 4606 attending Steiner Schools as well as 5440 farm reference and 2024 Steiner reference children). A detailed questionnaire including a dietary component was completed and allergen-specific IgE was measured in serum.
Farm milk consumption ever in life showed a statistically significant inverse association with asthma: covariate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.88], rhinoconjunctivitis: aOR 0.56 (0.43-0.73) and sensitization to pollen and the food mix fx5 (cut-off level of >or=3.5 kU/L): aOR 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and aOR 0.42 (0.19-0.92), respectively, and sensitization to horse dander: aOR 0.50 (95% CI 0.28-0.87). The associations were observed in all four subpopulations and independent of farm-related co-exposures. Other farm-produced products were not independently related to any allergy-related health outcome.
Our results indicate that consumption of farm milk may offer protection against asthma and allergy. A deepened understanding of the relevant protective components of farm milk and a better insight into the biological mechanisms underlying this association are warranted as a basis for the development of a safe product for prevention.

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Available from: Helen Rosenlund, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Epidemiological studies have shown that growing up on a farm is associated with a lower risk of developing allergy (Braun-Fahrländer et al., 1999; Ehrenstein et al., 2000; Waser et al., 2004; Alfvén et al., 2006; Mutius & Vercelli, 2010) and that the consumption of raw milk is strongly correlated with this effect (Perkin & Strachan, 2006; Waser et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow's milk are responsible for modulating the immune system to reduce the risk of allergic diseases. Previous research in human and mice suggests that bacterial components derived from the maternal intestine are transported to breast milk through the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to assess whether a similar mechanism of bacterial trafficking could occur in the cow. Through the application of culture-independent methodology, we investigated the microbial composition and diversity of milk, blood and feces of healthy lactating cows. We found that a small number of bacterial OTUs belonging to the genera Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium, and the Peptostreptococcaceae family were present in all three samples from the same individual animals. Although these results do not confirm the hypothesis that trafficking of intestinal bacteria into mammary secretions does occur in the cow, they support the existence of an endogenous entero-mammary pathway for some bacterial components during lactation in the cow. Further research is required to define the specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria are transported into the mammary gland of the cow, and the health implications of such bacteria being present in milk.
    PeerJ 04/2015; 3:e888. DOI:10.7717/peerj.888 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Bu et al. (2009b) found that IgE-binding by α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin increased significantly after pasteurisation at temperatures between 50 and 90 °C, compared to non-heated milk, by means of indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). These findings are backed up by epidemiological studies showing a lower prevalence of milk allergy upon ingestion of raw milk compared to consumption of commercially available milk products (Loss et al., 2011; Waser et al., 2007). However, there were no published controlled human intervention studies examining the allergenicity of pasteurised milk compared to non-heated (raw) milk (Van Neerven et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to developed robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 03/2015; 80. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2015.03.005 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "In this respect, it is also noteworthy to mention that farm milk consumption is inversely associated with asthma and allergy and was independent of farm-related co-exposures in a cross sectional multi-center study including 14893 children aged 5–13 years [46]. Hence, the overall composition as well as food processing procedure will influence the allergenic potential of milk allergens. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin) that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form) is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104803. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104803 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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