Prevalence of physical activity and inactivity among Saudis aged 30-70 years. A population-based cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT To assess physical activity levels among Saudi adults, and to examine the relationships of physical activity with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity prevalence.
Data taken from the Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study which is a National Epidemiological Health Survey carried out between 1995 and 2000. Participants included 17395 Saudi males and females aged 30-70 years, selected randomly using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Leisure-type and sport-related physical activities including walking were assessed using an interviewed-administered questionnaire. The activities were classified into five intensity categories and assigned metabolic equivalents (MET) according to the compendium of physical activity. Based on the intensity, duration and frequency of physical activity, subjects were classified into active or inactive category.
Inactivity prevalence (96.1%) was very high. There were significantly (p<0.001)) more inactive females (98.1%) than males (93.9%). Inactivity prevalence increases with increasing age category, especially in males, and decreases with increasing education levels. Inactivity was the highest in the central region (97.3%; 95% CI = 96.8-97.8%) and the lowest in the southern region of Saudi Arabia (94.0%; 95% CI = 93.2-94.8%). Further, active individuals exhibited lower values of BMI and WC.
These findings reveal the sedentary nature of Saudi population. The overwhelming majority of men and women did not reach the recommended physical activity levels necessary for promoting health and preventing diseases. The high prevalence of inactivity among Saudis represents a major public health concern.
SourceAvailable from: Rose RichardsChronicity, Care and Complexity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 1st edited by Rose Richards, Jennifer Creek, 01/2013: chapter “You look very well for a transplant”: Finding a space for one’s narrative in chronic kidney disease through autoethnography: pages 109-124; Inter-Disciplinary Press.
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ABSTRACT: Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohort). We observed large effect sizes with obesity for rs10767664 (BDNF) (OR = 1.923, P = 0.00072) and rs3751812 (FTO) (OR = 1.523, P = 0.016) in our sample and, using weighted genetic risk scores, we found strong evidence of a cumulative effect using 11 SNPs taken predominantly from loci principally affecting appetite (OR = 2.57, P = 0.00092). We used conditional analyses to discern which of our three highly correlated FTO SNPs were responsible for the observed signal, although we were unable to determine with confidence which best marked the causal site. Our analysis indicates that markers located in loci known to influence fat mass through increased appetite affect obesity in Saudi Arabians to an extent possibly greater than in Europeans. Larger scale studies will be necessary to obtain a precise comparison.Disease markers 01/2014; 2014:758232. DOI:10.1155/2014/758232 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.International Journal of Women's Health 01/2015; 7:279. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S80680