The host inflammatory response promotes liver metastasis by increasing tumor cell arrest and extravasation.
ABSTRACT Inflammation can play a regulatory role in cancer progression and metastasis. Previously, we have shown that metastatic tumor cells entering the liver trigger a proinflammatory response involving Kupffer cell-mediated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the up-regulation of vascular endothelial cell adhesion receptors, such as E-selectin. Here, we analyzed spatio-temporal aspects of the ensuing tumor-endothelial cell interaction using human colorectal carcinoma CX-1 and murine carcinoma H-59 cells and a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. E-selectin expression was evident mainly on sinusoidal vessels by 6 and 10 hours, respectively, following H-59 and CX-1 inoculation, and this corresponded to a stabilization of the number of tumor cells within the sinuses. Tumor cells arrested in E-selectin(+) vessels and appeared to flatten and traverse the vessel lining, away from sites of intense E-selectin staining. This process was evident by 8 (H-59) and 12 (CX-1) hours after inoculation, coincided with increased endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, and involved tumor cell attachment in areas of intense vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Nonmetastatic (human) MIP-101 and (murine) M-27 cells induced a weaker response and could not be seen to extravasate. The results show that metastatic tumor cells can alter the hepatic microvasculature and use newly expressed endothelial cell receptors to arrest and extravasate.
Article: Cimetidine inhibits cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells and prevents metastasis by blocking E-selectin expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the beneficial effect of cimetidine on survival in cancer has been clinically demonstrated in colorectal cancer patients, the mode of action of cimetidine has not been elucidated. In this report, we have demonstrated for the first time that cimetidine can block the adhesion of a colorectal tumor cell line to the endothelial cell monolayer in cell culture and that it can suppress the metastasis of the tumor cell in a nude mouse model. We also demonstrated that these antimetastasis effects of cimetidine might occur through down-regulation of the cell surface expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells, a ligand for sialyl Lewis antigens on tumor cells. We found that the cimetidine-mediated down-regulation of E-selectin did not involve down-regulation of E-selectin mRNA or blocking of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB, a transcriptional activator of E-selectin gene expression. Because two other histamine type 2 receptor antagonists, famotidine and ranitidine, did not show any similar effect, these actions of cimetidine probably do not occur via blocking of the histamine receptor. These observations support the idea that cancer metastasis can be blocked by cimetidine administration through blocking the adhesion of tumor cells to the endothelium when an interaction between E-selectin and sialyl-Lewis antigens plays a role.Cancer Research 08/2000; 60(14):3978-84. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Liver endothelial E-selectin mediates carcinoma cell adhesion and promotes liver metastasis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: E-selectin is a cytokine-inducible endothelial cell adhesion receptor which is involved in the process of leukocyte rolling, the first in a cascade of interactions leading to leukocyte transmigration. Several studies have implicated this receptor in carcinoma cell adhesion to the endothelium, an interaction thought to be required for tumor extravasation during metastasis. To study the role of this receptor in the process of metastasis, we utilized a murine carcinoma line H-59 which is highly metastatic to the liver in vivo. When adhesion of H-59 cells to primary cultures of murine hepatic endothelial cells was measured, it was found that the tumor cells had a low basal level of adhesion to the sinusoidal endothelial cells, which could be significantly and specifically augmented by pre-activation of the endothelial cells with rTNF alpha. This incremental increase in adhesion to the activated endothelium could be completely and specifically abolished by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to murine E-selectin (MAb 9A9). Similar results were obtained with 2 highly metastatic human colorectal carcinoma lines, HM 7 and CX-1, but not with a second murine subline, M-27, which is poorly metastatic to the liver. To assess the role of E-selectin in metastasis to the liver in vivo, the effect of MAb 9A9 on experimental liver metastasis was evaluated using the syngeneic H-59 model. We show here that this antibody caused a marked, specific and Fc-independent inhibition of experimental liver metastasis, reducing the median number of metastases by 97% relative to the control groups. Our results provide evidence that endothelial E-selectin is a mediator of carcinoma metastasis to the liver.International Journal of Cancer 06/1997; 71(4):612-9. · 5.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissues maintain homeostasis by monitoring and responding to varied physical interactions between cells and their microenvironment. In situations where acute tissue damage occurs, such as wounding, pathogenic assault, or toxic exposure, regulatory circuits that monitor tissue homeostasis are rapidly engaged to initiate tissue repair by regulating cell polarity, proliferation and death, matrix metabolism, inflammation, and vascular and lymphatic function. The critical feature of regulating these acute responses is the innate ability to discriminate between homeostatic versus damaged tissue states and engage or disengage regulatory machinery as appropriate; thus, a major distinction between acute versus chronic disease is the altered ability to appropriately activate and?or inactivate reparative regulatory programs. Since cancer is a chronic disease characterized by altered cell polarity, enhanced cell survival, inflammation, increased matrix metabolism, and enhanced vascular and lymphatic function, considerable attention is now focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating these responsive pathways. Since chemoattractant cytokines are important mediators of leukocyte recruitment following acute tissue stress, and demonstrate altered characteristics of expression and activation in chronically inflamed tissue, they have been implicated as key regulators of inflammation and angiogenesis during cancer development. This chapter focuses on the clinical and experimental data implicating proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as important potentiators of carcinogenesis.Advances in Cancer Research 02/2005; 93:159-87. · 4.46 Impact Factor