Cytokines in chronically critically ill patients after activity and rest
ABSTRACT Inflammation, a common problem for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), frequently is associated with serious and prolonged critical illnesses. To date, no study has examined whether physical activity influences inflammatory factors in critically ill adults. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between type and duration of physical activity and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine; IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine; and their ratio and (b) determine if there are associations between cytokines or their ratio and activity or outcomes. This descriptive feasibility study investigated the approaches to measuring levels of physical activity and its relationship to serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and the ratio between them in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation during periods of activity and rest. Measurements included serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, direct observation and actigraphy, and prospective chart review. Ten critically ill patients who were mechanically ventilated for an average of 10 days in a large, urban, teaching hospital were enrolled. The average ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 improved after an average of 14.7 min of passive physical activity, typically multiple in-bed turns associated with hygiene. IL-6, IL-10, and their ratio were not associated with patient outcomes of weaning success or length of stay. High levels of IL-6 were associated with mortality. Cytokine balance may be improved by low levels of activity among patients with prolonged critical illness. The pattern of cytokines produced after activity may improve patients' recovery from prolonged critical illness and mechanical ventilation.
SourceAvailable from: Ronenn Roubenoff[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective Muscle loss and metabolic changes occur with disuse [i.e. bed rest (BR)]. We hypothesized that BR would lead to a metabolically unhealthy profile defined by: increased circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, decreased circulating insulin-like-growth-factor (IGF)-1, decreased HDL-cholesterol, and decreased muscle density (MD; measured by mid-thigh computerized tomography). Methods We investigated the metabolic profile after 28 days of BR with 8±6% energy deficit in male individuals (30-55 years) randomized to resistance exercise with amino acid supplementation (RT, n=24) or amino acid supplementation alone (EAA, n=7). Upper and lower body exercises were performed in the horizontal position. Blood samples were taken at baseline, after 28 days of BR and 14 days of recovery. Results We found a shift toward a metabolically unfavourable profile after BR [compared to baseline (BLN)] in both groups as shown by decreased HDL-cholesterol levels (EAA: BLN: 39±4 vs. BR: 32±2 mg/dL, RT: BLN: 39±1 vs. BR: 32±1 mg/dL; p<0.001) and Low MD (EAA: BLN: 27±4 vs. BR: 22±3 cm2, RT: BLN: 28±2 vs. BR: 23±2 cm2; p<0.001). A healthier metabolic profile was maintained with exercise, including NormalMD (EAA: BLN: 124±6 vs. BR: 110±5 cm2, RT: BLN: 132±3 vs. BR: 131±4 cm2; p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR. Interestingly, both groups had increased plasma IGF-1 levels (EAA: BLN:168±22 vs. BR 213±20 ng/mL, RT: BLN:180±10 vs. BR: 219±13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05). Conclusions We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR.International journal of medical sciences 09/2014; 11(12):1248-57. DOI:10.7150/ijms.9694 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Critical illness may weaken muscles, with long-term consequences. Objective To assess physiological responses to an early standardized passive exercise protocol to prevent muscle weakness in adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods A quasi-experimental within-subjects repeated-measures design was used. Within 72 hours of intubation, 30 patients had 20 minutes of bilateral passive leg movement delivered by continuous-passive-motion machines at a standardized rate and flexion-extension. Heart rate, mean blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and cytokine levels were measured before, during, and after the intervention. The Behavioral Pain Scale was used to measure patients' comfort. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of the exercise on independent variables. Results Patients were mostly white men with a mean age of 56.5 years (SD, 16.9) with moderate mortality risk and illness severity. Heart rate, mean blood pressure, and oxygen saturation did not differ from baseline at any time measured. Pain scores were significantly reduced (F2.43,70.42 = 4.08; P = .02) 5 and 10 minutes after exercise started and remained reduced at the end of exercise and 1 hour later. Interleukin 6 levels were significantly reduced (F1.60,43.1 = 4.35; P = .03) at the end of exercise but not after the final rest period. Interleukin 10 levels did not differ significantly. Ratios of interleukin 6 to interleukin 10 decreased significantly (F1.61,43.38 = 3.42; P = .05) at the end of exercise and again after 60 minutes' rest. Conclusion The exercise was well tolerated, and comfort improved during and after the intervention. Cytokine levels provided physiological rationale for benefits of early exercise.American Journal of Critical Care 07/2013; 22(4):337-48. DOI:10.4037/ajcc2013284 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The postoperative period following abdominal surgery presents many challenges to patients and clinicians as recovery progresses and discharge from the intensive care unit approaches. Physiologic changes including the release of inflammatory mediators, increased fatigue and reduction in body mass, and a decline in pulmonary function occurring after abdominal surgery are often potentiated by bed rest and immobility. Evidence-based interventions have the potential to prevent pulmonary complications, wound instability, drain displacement, and orthostatic hypotension. Promoting early mobility is one example of an evidence-based strategy to improve patient outcomes. By understanding the specific needs of the abdominal surgery population, the clinician can safely and effectively implement a mobility plan. The purpose of this article was to briefly review the inflammatory effects associated with bed rest, critical illness, and surgery; review the literature related to mobility in the abdominal surgery patient; describe the effects of immobility on postoperative outcomes; discuss the safety concerns and barriers to mobilization; discuss strategies to overcome barriers; and provide suggestions for application in practice.Critical care nursing quarterly 01/2013; 36(1):63-72. DOI:10.1097/CNQ.0b013e3182753237