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    • "The studies that documented the proportion of women returning for their CD4 count results found attrition of 30–33% at this point of the cascade (Chi et al. 2007; Mandala et al. 2009; Horwood et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives  To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore the reasons underlying client drop-out by synthesising current literature on this topic. Methods  A systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences of literature published 2000-2010. Only studies meeting pre-defined quality criteria were included. Results  Of 2543 articles retrieved, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (80%) drew on data from sub-Saharan Africa. The pathway between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV-related services is complex, and attrition was usually high. There was a failure to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 38-88% of known-eligible women. Providing 'family-focused care', and integrating CD4 testing and HAART provision into prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services appear promising for increasing women's uptake of HIV-related services. Individual-level factors that need to be addressed include financial constraints and fear of stigma. Conclusions  Too few women negotiate the many steps between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing HIV-related services for themselves. Recent efforts to stem patient drop-out, such as the MTCT-Plus Initiative, hold promise. Addressing barriers and enabling factors both within health facilities and at the levels of the individual woman, her family and society will be essential to improve the uptake of services.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2012; 17(5):564-580. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.02958.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "In the rural clinics, HIV-exposed children were tested and referred to the ART clinic from maternal and child health and pediatric programs and were followed until their HIV status could be confirmed. In the urban clinic, there was less collaboration between programs and higher attrition among referrals [22], such that many infants were either not tested or contact was lost before they obtained their test results and could be referred to the ART clinic. Under this system, the onus was on the caregiver to seek testing, care and treatment for their child. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2003 pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs have scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa and should be evaluated to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. We evaluated secular trends in the characteristics and treatment outcomes of children in three pediatric ART clinics in urban and rural areas in Zambia. Routinely collected data were analyzed from three ART programs in rural (Macha and Mukinge) and urban (Lusaka) Zambia between program implementation and July 2008. Data were obtained from electronic medical record systems and medical record abstraction, and were categorized by year of program implementation. Characteristics of all HIV-infected and exposed children enrolled in the programs and all children initiating treatment were compared by year of implementation. Age decreased and immunologic characteristics improved in all groups over time in both urban and rural clinics, with greater improvement observed in the rural clinics. Among children both eligible and ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, the majority started treatment within a year. A high proportion of children, particularly those ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, were lost to follow-up prior to initiating ART. Among children initiating ART, clinical and immunologic outcomes after six months of treatment improved in both urban and rural clinics. In the urban clinics, mortality after six months of treatment declined with program duration, and in the rural clinics, the proportion of children defaulting by six months increased with program duration. Treatment programs are showing signs of progress in the care of HIV-infected children, particularly in the rural clinics where scale-up increased rapidly over the first three years of program implementation. However, continued efforts to optimize care are needed as many children continue to enroll in ART programs at a late stage of disease and thus are not receiving the full benefits of treatment.
    BMC Pediatrics 07/2010; 10:54. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-10-54 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The inclusion and exclusion criteria have been described elsewhere (Chi et al. 2007b). Briefly, women enrolled into the public sector program were asked about previous antiretroviral drug use for PMTCT (Stringer et al. 2003, Chi et al. 2007a). Women who were nulliparous at time of enrollment or who reported the diagnosis of HIV after their last pregnancy were classified as NVP-unexposed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prior exposure to intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine (NVP) is associated with compromised virologic treatment outcomes once non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is initiated. We examined the longer-term clinical outcomes in a programmatic setting. We compared post-12 month mortality and clinical treatment failure (defined by WHO clinical and immunologic criteria) among women with and without prior NVP exposure in Lusaka, Zambia. Between April 2004 and July 2006, 6740 women initiated an NNRTI-containing regimen. At 12 months, 5172 (78%) remained active and were included in this analysis. Of these, 596 (12%) reported prior NVP exposure, whose time from exposure to ART initiation was: <6 months for 11%, 6-12 months for 13%, >12 months for 37%, unknown for 39%. Overall, women with prior NVP exposure trended towards increased survival (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-1.06, P = 0.07) and towards increased hazard of clinical treatment failure (AHR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.95-1.47, P = 0.14), particularly those with exposure for <6 months (AHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 0.94-2.45, P = 0.09). Prior NVP exposure appeared to increase risk for clinical treatment failure after 12 months of follow-up, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. With growing evidence linking recent NVP exposure to virologic failure, optimized monitoring algorithms should be considered for women with starting NNRTI-based ART. The association between prior NVP exposure and improved survival has not been previously shown and may be a result of residual confounding around health-seeking behaviours.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/2010; 15(7):842-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02540.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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