Article

Placental S100 (S100P) and GATA3: markers for transitional epithelium and urothelial carcinoma discovered by complementary DNA microarray.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2007; 31(5):673-80. DOI: 10.1097/01.pas.0000213438.01278.5f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The morphologic distinction between prostate and urothelial carcinoma can be difficult. To identify novel diagnostic markers that may aid in the differential diagnosis of prostate versus urothelial carcinoma, we analyzed expression patterns in prostate and bladder cancer tissues using complementary DNA microarrays. Together with our prior studies on renal neoplasms and normal kidney, these studies suggested that the gene for placental S100 (S100P) is specifically expressed in benign and malignant urothelial cells. Using tissue microarrays, a polyclonal antiserum against S100P protein stained 86% of 295 urothelial carcinomas while only 3% of 260 prostatic adenocarcinomas and 1% of 133 renal cell carcinomas stained. A commercially available monoclonal antibody against S100P stained 78% of 300 urothelial carcinomas while only 2% of 256 prostatic adenocarcinomas and none of 137 renal cell carcinomas stained. A second gene, GATA3, also showed high level expression in urothelial tumors by cDNA array. A commercially available monoclonal antibody against GATA3 stained 67% of 308 urothelial carcinomas, but none of the prostate or renal carcinomas. For comparison, staining was also performed for p63 and cytokeratin 5/6. p63 stained 87% of urothelial carcinomas whereas CK5/6 stained 54%. Importantly, when S100P and p63 were combined 95% of urothelial carcinomas were labeled by one or both markers. We conclude that the detection of S100P and GATA3 protein expression may help distinguish urothelial carcinomas from other genitourinary neoplasms that enter into the differential diagnosis.

1 Bookmark
 · 
214 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is the 4th most common cancer among men in the U.S. and more than half of patients experience recurrences within 5 years after initial diagnosis. Additional clinically informative and actionable biomarkers of the recurrent bladder cancer phenotypes are needed to improve screening and molecular therapeutic approaches for recurrence prevention. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a short non-coding regulatory RNA with tumor suppressive attributes. We leveraged our unique, large, population-based prognostic study of bladder cancer in New Hampshire, U.S. to evaluate miR-34a expression levels in individual tumor cells to assess prognostic value. We collected detailed exposure and medical history data, as well as tumor tissue specimens from bladder patients and followed them long-term for recurrence, progression and survival. Fluorescence-based in situ hybridization assays were performed on urothelial carcinoma tissue specimens (n=229). A larger proportion of the non-muscle invasive tumors had high levels of miR-34a within the carcinoma cells compared to those tumors that were muscle invasive. Patients with high miR-34a levels in their baseline non-muscle invasive tumors experienced lower risks of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.57 95%CI 0.34-0.93). Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated a functional tumor suppressive role for miR-34a in cultured urothelial cells, including reduced matrigel invasion and growth in soft agar. Our results highlight the need for further clinical studies of miR-34a as a guide for recurrence screening and as a possible candidate therapeutic target in the bladder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-3 has received much attention as a master regulator of T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, during which it controls interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 expression. More recently, GATA-3 was shown to contribute to type 2 immunity through regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and function. Furthermore, during thymopoiesis, GATA-3 represses B cell potential in early T cell precursors, activates TCR signaling in pre-T cells, and promotes the CD4(+) T cell lineage after positive selection. GATA-3 also functions outside the thymus in hematopoietic stem cells, regulatory T cells, CD8(+) T cells, thymic natural killer cells, and ILC precursors. Here we discuss the varied functions of GATA-3 in innate and adaptive immune cells, with emphasis on its activity in T cells and ILCs, and examine the mechanistic basis for the dose-dependent, developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific activity of this transcription factor.
    Immunity 08/2014; 41(2):191-206. · 19.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer initiation, while precise functions of androgens and estrogens in the carcinogenesis step remain poorly understood. We recently found down-regulation of GATA3, a zinc-finger transcription factor and a new urothelial marker, in bladder cancer, which also correlated with expression status of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs). We here assessed whether GATA3 acted as a suppressor of bladder tumorigenesis and sex hormones exerted an influence on GATA3 in non-neoplastic urothelial cells. Androgen (R1881, dihydrotestosterone) treatment in SVHUC immortalized normal urothelial cells stably expressing AR (SVHUC-AR) decreased GATA3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, which was abolished by anti-androgens. Conversely, 17β-estradiol treatment increased it in SVHUC-control endogenously expressing ERβ. GATA3 levels were also found to be higher in intact female mouse bladders compared with intact males, and orchiectomy/ovariectomy augmented/reduced GATA3 expression, respectively, which was at least partially restored by dihydrotestosterone/17β-estradiol supplement. Additionally, GATA3 silencing via short hairpin RNA (shRNA) promoted cell proliferation of SVHUC with exposure to a chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene. In vitro transformation assay with 3-methylcholanthrene then showed a significantly higher number of colonies in SVHUC-AR/GATA3-shRNA, compared with control SVHUC, and R1881 further induced colony formation. GATA3 knockdown also resulted in down-regulation of the molecules that play a protective role in bladder tumorigenesis (i.e. UGT1A, PTEN, p53, p21) and up-regulation of oncogenic genes (i.e. c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin E, FGFR3). Thus, GATA3 likely prevented neoplastic transformation of urothelial cells. Furthermore, sex hormone signals contrary regulated GATA3 in the bladder. These findings may offer not only a molecular basis for the gender-specific difference in bladder cancer incidence but also great potential for androgen deprivation as a chemopreventive option for tumor recurrence.
    American journal of cancer research. 01/2014; 4(5):461-73.

Full-text

Download
18 Downloads
Available from
Aug 5, 2014