Article

Placental S100 (S100P) and GATA3: markers for transitional epithelium and urothelial carcinoma discovered by complementary DNA microarray.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2007; 31(5):673-80. DOI: 10.1097/01.pas.0000213438.01278.5f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The morphologic distinction between prostate and urothelial carcinoma can be difficult. To identify novel diagnostic markers that may aid in the differential diagnosis of prostate versus urothelial carcinoma, we analyzed expression patterns in prostate and bladder cancer tissues using complementary DNA microarrays. Together with our prior studies on renal neoplasms and normal kidney, these studies suggested that the gene for placental S100 (S100P) is specifically expressed in benign and malignant urothelial cells. Using tissue microarrays, a polyclonal antiserum against S100P protein stained 86% of 295 urothelial carcinomas while only 3% of 260 prostatic adenocarcinomas and 1% of 133 renal cell carcinomas stained. A commercially available monoclonal antibody against S100P stained 78% of 300 urothelial carcinomas while only 2% of 256 prostatic adenocarcinomas and none of 137 renal cell carcinomas stained. A second gene, GATA3, also showed high level expression in urothelial tumors by cDNA array. A commercially available monoclonal antibody against GATA3 stained 67% of 308 urothelial carcinomas, but none of the prostate or renal carcinomas. For comparison, staining was also performed for p63 and cytokeratin 5/6. p63 stained 87% of urothelial carcinomas whereas CK5/6 stained 54%. Importantly, when S100P and p63 were combined 95% of urothelial carcinomas were labeled by one or both markers. We conclude that the detection of S100P and GATA3 protein expression may help distinguish urothelial carcinomas from other genitourinary neoplasms that enter into the differential diagnosis.

Full-text

Available from: James D Brooks, Aug 05, 2014
3 Followers
 · 
243 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 is seen predominantly in non-neoplastic bladder and breast epithelium and their respective carcinomas; however, data on expression in normal and lesional trophoblastic tissues are limited. Immunohistochemical staining for GATA-3 was assessed in a range of normal/lesional trophoblastic tissues and tumors in the differential diagnosis (n=445), including nonmolar products of conceptions/second and third trimester placentas/ectopic pregnancies, hydatidiform moles, placental site nodules, normal/exaggerated implantation sites, choriocarcinomas, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, placental site trophoblastic tumors, atypical smooth muscle tumors (including leiomyosarcoma), and cervical and pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas. The extent of expression (0 to 4+) and intensity (weak to strong) were recorded. All cases with developing trophoblast/non-neoplastic trophoblastic proliferation and 81% of trophoblastic neoplasms were positive. Of all non-neoplastic trophoblast cell types, expression was observed in cytotrophoblast in 89% of cases, syncytiotrophoblast in 50%, intermediate trophoblast in 100%, and villous trophoblastic columns in 100%. Increasing gestational age was associated with a decrease in extent/intensity of expression in non-neoplastic cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, whereas intermediate trophoblast maintained diffuse and strong expression from early to late gestation (P<0.0001). Eighty-nine percent of normal/exaggerated implantation sites showed 3+ or 4+ expression, whereas staining in 55% of placental site nodules was 1+ or 2+. Staining for GATA-3 was present in 78% of choriocarcinomas, 95% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, and 71% of placental site trophoblastic tumors. Although the number of choriocarcinomas and placental site trophoblastic tumors that showed a spectrum of expression ranging from negative to diffuse was relatively evenly distributed, 81% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors had 3+ or 4+ staining. None of the atypical smooth muscle tumors and 3% of squamous cell carcinomas were positive, all of which exhibited weak staining. We conclude that GATA-3 is frequently expressed in normal and lesional trophoblastic tissues. It is also differentially expressed in intermediate trophoblast and cytotrophoblast/syncytiotrophoblast, which varies according to time during pregnancy. This study expands the spectrum of neoplasms known to express GATA-3. Thus, recognition of expression in trophoblastic tumors is important, because it can present a diagnostic pitfall in the assessment of suspected metastatic bladder or breast carcinomas involving the gynecologic tract. In the evaluation of diagnostically problematic tumors for which trophoblastic neoplasms are in the differential diagnosis, such as leiomyosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, GATA-3 can be included as part of an immunohistochemical panel particularly when other trophoblastic markers are either not available or yield ambiguous results.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 09/2014; 39(1). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000315 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: GATA3 is a sensitive marker for urothelial carcinoma. We here evaluate, for the first time, GATA3 expression in small cell carcinoma of bladder and prostate and assess its utility in the differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma of lung primary. Archival tissues from 60 small cell carcinomas (12 bladder, 15 lung and 33 prostate primary cases) were used to build two tissue microarrays. We also assessed whole slide sections from 10 additional primary small cell carcinomas of bladder. GATA3 nuclear expression was evaluated using standard immunohistochemistry. Intensity (weak, moderate and strong) and extent of expression were assessed in each TMA spot. Extent positivity was categorized as: focal (1-25%), multifocal (>25%) and diffuse (>75%). Nuclear GATA3 expression was encountered in 7 bladder (7/22, 32%) and 2 lung (2/15, 13%) small cell carcinomas. All 33 primary prostate small cell carcinomas were negative. Among bladder tumors, strong and diffuse (>75%) GATA3 labeling was seen in 3 cases (3/22, 14%); focal positivity was observed in the 4 remaining cases (4/22, 18%). Both positive lung cases had only focal positivity. Our study is the first to reveal GATA3 expression in small subset of lung small cell carcinoma that should be taken into consideration in assigning site of origin in advanced small cell carcinoma cases. Our novel finding of GATA3 positivity in one third of bladder small cell carcinoma is of potential value in differentiating small cell carcinomas of prostate origin from those of bladder origin.
    Human pathology 08/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2014.04.011 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) can usually be distinguished by histologic characteristics. Occasionally, diagnosis proves challenging and diagnostic difficulty will likely increase as needle biopsies of renal lesions become more common. To identify markers that aid in differentiating ccRCC from chRCC, we used gene expression profiles to identify candidate markers that correlate with histology. 39 antisera and antibodies, including 35 for transcripts identified from gene expression profiling, were evaluated. Promising markers were tested on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 428 renal neoplasms. Strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored and the distribution of staining across different types of renal neoplasms was analyzed. Based on results from initial immunohistochemical staining of multitissue titer arrays, 23 of the antisera and antibodies were selected for staining of the TMA. For 7 of these markers, strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored. Vimentin (positive in ccRCC) and CD9 (positive in chRCC) best distinguished ccRCC from chRCC. The combination of vimentin negativity and CD9 positivity was found to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 95.2%. Based on gene expression analysis, we identify CD9 and vimentin as candidate markers for distinguishing between ccRCC and chRCC. In difficult cases and particularly when the amount of diagnostic tissue is limited, vimentin and CD9 staining could serve as a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of ccRCC and chRCC.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 11/2009; 9:9. DOI:10.1186/1472-6890-9-9