Mortalin (mtHSP70/GRP75) is a heat uninducible member of hsp70 family of proteins. Some of the established features of mortalin include its various subcellular sites, multiple binding partners, and differential subcellular distribution in normal and immortal cells. Overexpression of mortalin leads to extended life span in nematode and normal human cells. On the other hand, it serves as a major target for oxidation and was shown to be involved in old age pathologies including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Since mortalin interacts with many proteins, its modifications in response to stress and damage caused by intracellular oxidation are likely to generate pleiotropic effects. For example, (a) inefficient import of mitochondrial proteins by mortalin-Tim complexes may result into inefficient mitochondrial genesis, energy generation, and functional decline and (b) inefficient chaperoning of proteins can result into a garbage catastrophe.
"Changes in autophagy and mitochondrial morphology are also suggested by the decrement of PARK7 and HSPA9 in the early phase. The latter is a part of the mitochondrial inner membrane transporter (TIM) complex  and in association with PARK7, plays "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study employed differential proteomic and immunoassay techniques to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms utilized by human muscle (vastus lateralis) in response to high altitude hypoxia exposure. Two groups of subjects, participating in a medical research expedition (A, n = 5, 19d at 5300m altitude; B, n = 6, 66d up to 8848m) underwent a ≈ 30% drop of muscular creatine kinase and of glycolytic enzymes abundance. Protein abundance of most enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation was reduced both in A and, particularly, in B. Restriction of α-ketoglutarate toward succinyl-CoA resulted in increased prolyl hydroxylase 2 and glutamine synthetase. Both A and B were characterized by a reduction of elongation factor 2alpha, controlling protein translation, and by an increase of heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein involved in chaperone-mediated autophagy. Increased protein levels of catalase and biliverdin reductase occurred in A alongside a decrement of voltage-dependent anion channels 1 and 2 and of myosin-binding protein C, suggesting damage to the sarcomeric structures. This study suggests that during acclimatization to hypobaric hypoxia the muscle behaves as a producer of substrates activating a metabolic reprogramming able to support anaplerotically the TCA cycle, to control protein translation, to prevent energy expenditure and to activate chaperone-mediated autophagy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
"Mortalin is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis, organellar quality control, and suppression of apoptosis (for review, see , , ). Mortalin variants that adversely affect mitochondrial function have been identified in PD patients, supporting the importance of Mortalin for mitochondrial function . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortalin is an essential component of the molecular machinery that imports nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria, assists in their folding, and protects against damage upon accumulation of dysfunctional, unfolded proteins in aging mitochondria. Mortalin dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) increases the vulnerability of cultured cells to proteolytic stress and leads to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology. To date, Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used to investigate pathogenesis following the loss of several other PD-associated genes. We generated the first loss-of-Hsc70-5/mortalin-function Drosophila model. The reduction of Mortalin expression recapitulates some of the defects observed in the existing Drosophila PD-models, which include reduced ATP levels, abnormal wing posture, shortened life span, and reduced spontaneous locomotor and climbing ability. Dopaminergic neurons seem to be more sensitive to the loss of mortalin than other neuronal sub-types and non-neuronal tissues. The loss of synaptic mitochondria is an early pathological change that might cause later degenerative events. It precedes both behavioral abnormalities and structural changes at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of mortalin-knockdown larvae that exhibit increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Autophagy is concomitantly up-regulated, suggesting that mitochondria are degraded via mitophagy. Ex vivo data from human fibroblasts identifies increased mitophagy as an early pathological change that precedes apoptosis. Given the specificity of the observed defects, we are confident that the loss-of-mortalin model presented in this study will be useful for further dissection of the complex network of pathways that underlie the development of mitochondrial parkinsonism.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83714. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083714 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Glucoseregulated protein 75 (GRP75, also called mortalin/ mtHSP70/mot-2), a member of the cytoprotective Hsp70 family of chaperons, interacts with both PINK1 (Jin et al. 2006, 2007; Li et al. 2005; Rakovic et al. 2011) and DJ-1 (Jin et al. 2005; Li et al. 2005). GRP75 is mainly localized within the mitochondria matrix of neurons where it accomplishes several functions such as mitochondrial import and oxidative stress management (Yaguchi et al. 2007). Overexpression of GRP75 leads to extended life span in nematodes and human cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RESV), a polyphenolic natural compound, has long been acknowledged to have cardioprotective and antiinflammatory actions. Evidence suggests that RESV has antioxidant properties that reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress and apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent literature has recognized hyperglycemia as a cause of oxidative stress reported to be harmful for the nervous system. In this context, our study aimed (a) to evaluate the effect of RESV against high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress in DAergic neurons, (b) to study the antiapoptotic properties of RESV in HG condition, and c) to analyze RESV's ability to modulate p53 and GRP75, a p53 inactivator found to be under expressed in postmortem PD brains. Our results suggest that RESV protects DAergic neurons against HG-induced oxidative stress by diminishing cellular levels of superoxide anion. Moreover, RESV significantly reduces HG-induced apoptosis in DAergic cells by modulating DNA fragmentation and the expression of several genes implicated in the apoptotic cascade, such as Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP-1. RESV also prevents the pro-apoptotic increase of p53 in the nucleus induced by HG. Such data strengthens the correlation between hyperglycemia and neurodegeneration, while providing new insight on the high occurrence of PD in patients with diabetes. This study enlightens potent neuroprotective roles for RESV that should be considered as a nutritional recommendation for preventive and/or complementary therapies in controlling neurodegenerative complications in diabetes.
Neurotoxicity Research 11/2013; 25(1). DOI:10.1007/s12640-013-9439-7 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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