The novel GTPase Rit differentially regulates axonal and dendritic growth.
ABSTRACT The Rit GTPase is widely expressed in developing and adult nervous systems, and our previous data with pheochromocytoma cells implicate Rit signaling in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated a role for Rit in neuronal morphogenesis. Expression of a dominant-negative (dn) Rit mutant in hippocampal neurons inhibited axonal growth but potentiated dendritic growth. Conversely, a constitutively active (ca) Rit mutant promoted axonal growth but inhibited dendritic growth. Dendritogenesis is regulated differently in sympathetic neurons versus hippocampal neurons in that sympathetic neurons require NGF and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to trigger dendritic growth. Despite these differences, dnRit potentiated and caRit blocked BMP7-induced dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons. Biochemical studies indicated that BMP7 treatments that caused dendritic growth also decreased Rit GTP loading. Additional studies demonstrate that caRit increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK 1) blocked the axon-promoting and dendrite-inhibiting effects of caRit. These observations suggest that Rit is a convergence point for multiple signaling pathways and it functions to promote axonal growth but inhibit dendritic growth via activation of ERK1/2. Modulation of the activational status of Rit may therefore represent a generalized mechanism across divergent neuronal cell types for regulating axonal versus dendritic growth modes.
Article: Experimental observations on the development of polarity by hippocampal neurons in culture.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In culture, hippocampal neurons develop a polarized form, with a single axon and several dendrites. Transecting the axons of hippocampal neurons early in development can cause an alteration of polarity; a process that would have become a dendrite instead becomes the axon (Dotti, C. G., and G. A. Banker. 1987. Nature (Lond.). 330:254-256). To investigate this phenomenon more systematically, we transected axons at varying lengths. The greater the distance of the transection from the soma, the greater the probability for regrowth of the original axon. However, it was not the absolute length of the axonal stump that determined the response to transection, but rather its length relative to the lengths of the cell's other processes. If one process was greater than 10 microns longer than the others, it invariably became the axon regardless of its identity before transection. Conversely, when a cell's processes were nearly equal in length, it was impossible to predict which would become the axon. In these cases, axonal outgrowth began only after a long latency. During this interval, the processes appeared to be in dynamic equilibrium, some growing for short distances while others retracted. When one process exceeded the others by a critical length, it rapidly elongated to become the axon. The establishment of neuronal polarity during normal development may similarly involve an interaction among processes whose identities have not yet been determined. When, by chance, one exceeds the others by a critical length, it becomes specified as the axon.The Journal of Cell Biology 05/1989; 108(4):1507-16. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Neutrophil tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 occurs in novel vesicles that do not fuse with the phagosome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human neutrophil granule location of precursors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-8 and -9, has been established, but that of the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has not. In this study, labeling for TIMP-1, pro-MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, and established granule marker proteins reveals that TIMP-1 is mainly located in distinct oval, electron translucent organelles, a little larger than azurophil granules. A lack of labeling for the fluid phase endocytic marker, bovine serum albumin-gold, the lysosome-associated membrane protein markers, and for glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are enriched in secretory vesicles, indicates the non-endosomal, non-lysosomal, and non-secretory nature of this organelle. Density gradient cofractionation with the least dense, secretory population and some pleomorphism of the organelle suggest it is a "vesicle" rather than a "granule" population. Colocalization with pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-8, in minor subpopulations, suggests that TIMP-1 vesicle biogenesis occurs between metamyelocytic and terminal differentiation and before secretory vesicle synthesis. Pulse-chased IgG-coated latex beads and immunolabeling show that specific and azurophil granules fuse with the phagosome whereas TIMP-1 and pro-MMP-9-containing organelles do not. This suggests that these play no role in phagosomal destruction of IgG-opsonized bacteria. Separate localization and colocalization of these proteins may, however, facilitate fine regulation of extracellular proteolysis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2000; 275(36):28308-15. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic line differences in survival and pathogen load in young layer chicks after Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early infection may result in long-term colonization of layers with Salmonella enterica sv. enteritidis (S. enteritidis, SE), resulting in shedding into table or hatching eggs. To evaluate genetic factors underlying early response to SE, genetic line differences in mortality and pathogen load at two sites (cecal lumen and spleen) were investigated. At day of hatch, chicks of four genetic lines were intra-esophageally inoculated with one of three doses of SE phage type 13a. There was a significant effect (P < 0.001) of genetic line on chick 6-d survival. The effect of genetic line was significant (P < 0.05) on survivors' SE burden in cecal content but not on SE burden per gram of spleen. The SE pathogen load of the spleen and the cecal content were not significantly correlated, indicating that independent host mechanisms are partly responsible for these two traits. Genetic line differences in chick survival and SE colonization of cecal content were demonstrated in young layer chicks.Poultry Science 08/2001; 80(8):1105-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor