A means for targeting therapeutics to peripheral nervous system neurons with axonal damage.
ABSTRACT Delivery of biological therapeutics to motor and dorsal root ganglion neurons remains a major hurdle in the development of treatments for a variety of neurological processes, including peripheral nerve injury, pain, and motor neuron diseases. Because nerve cell bodies are important in initiating and controlling axonal regeneration, targeted delivery is an appealing strategy to deliver therapeutic proteins after peripheral nerve injury.
Tet1 is a 12-aa peptide, isolated through phage display that is selected for tetanus toxin C fragment-like binding properties. In this study, we surveyed its uptake and retrograde transport using compartmented cultures and sciatic nerve injections. We then characterized the time course of this delivery. Finally, to confirm the retrograde transport involvement, a colchicine pretreatment was performed. We also performed competitive binding studies between Tet1 and a recombinant tetanus toxin C fragment using recombinant tetanus toxin C fragment enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
We were able to demonstrate efficient uptake and retrograde axonal transport of the Tet1 peptide in vitro and in vivo. Intraneural colchicine pretreatment partially blocked fluorescence detection in the spinal cord, revealing a retrograde axonal transport mechanism. Finally, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiment revealed Tet1-specific binding to the recombinant tetanus toxin C fragment axon terminal trisialogangliosides receptor.
These properties of Tet1 can be applied to the development of therapeutic viral vectors and fusion proteins for neuronal targeting and enhanced spinal cord delivery in the treatment of nerve regeneration, neuroprotection, analgesia, and spasticity. Small peptides can be easily fused to larger proteins without significantly modifying their function and can be used to alter the binding and uptake properties of these proteins.
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ABSTRACT: ObjectThe purpose was to investigate the effects of local tetanus toxin (TeTx) application on sciatic nerve regeneration following a rat model of transection injury.Methods After both sciatic nerves were transected and repaired with three epineural sutures, 12 male Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. 0.25 ml (2.5 flocculation units) TeTx was injected into a piece of absorbable gelatin sponge in TeTx group. In controls, 0.25 ml saline injected. Assessments were performed by using climbing degrees, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and histological parameters (axon number and axonal diameter) 12th week.ResultsCMAPs amplitudes were 11.6 ± 4.7 mV and 1.4 ± 1.3 mV in gastrocnemius and interdigital muscles in TeTx group (5.8 ± 2.4 mV and 0.2 ± 0.1 mV, P < 0.05). Climbing degrees were significantly different (61.6 ± 1.7 vs. 38.3 ± 2.6, P < 0.05). Total axon numbers were higher (1341.1 ± 57.3 vs. 877.5 ± 34.9, P < 0.05) and the mean axon diameter was smaller (4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.9, P < 0.05) in the TeTx group.Conclusion This preliminary study firstly demonstrated the effectiveness of TeTx on nerve repair in experimental sciatic rat model based on functional, electromyographic and histological parameters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.Microsurgery 03/2014; · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the ex vivo reactivity of peptidic constructs of Tet1 (analog of tetanus toxin non-virulent C fragment) with sequence homology to the cysteine-active site of thioredoxin (Tet1THO) or tetralysine (Tet1PLYS) with oxidative species or axonopathic sodium cyanate (NaOCN), respectively. We then assessed their neuronal uptake in vivo in laboratory animals. The reactivity of Tet1PLYS with NaOCN (1:2.5 to 1:37.5 molar ratios) or Tet1THO with hydrogen peroxide (1:0.4 to 1:6.2 molar ratios) was assessed by mass spectrometry. Green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged Tet1-derivatives (3 mg/ml in artificial cerebrospinal fluid) were administered daily to rats by intramuscular injection in latissimus dorsi at lumborum at the dose of 1 μl/g of body weight, for 3 days. Motor neuron uptake was assessed after double immunolabeling for GFP and choline acetyltransferase. Mass spectrometry analysis successfully demonstrated the ex vivo reactivity of Tet1-derivatives in a concentration-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy revealed the localization of Tet1-derivatives in axons and motor neuron cell bodies. Intramuscular delivery of Tet1-derivatives appears to be a practical approach to circumvent the blood nerve barrier and selectively deliver small molecules to the nervous system, for diagnostic and/or treatment purposes.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 07/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Targeted gene delivery vectors can enhance cellular specificity and transfection efficiency. We demonstrated previously that conjugation of Tet1, a peptide that binds to the GT1b ganglioside, to polyethylenimine results in preferential transfection of neural progenitor cells in vivo. In this work, we investigate the effect of Tet1 ligand density on gene delivery to neuron-like, differentiated PC-12 cells. A series of statistical, cationic peptide-based polymers containing various amounts (1-5 mol%) of Tet1 were synthesized via one-pot reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization by copolymerization of Tet1 and oligo-l-lysine macromonomers with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA). When complexed with plasmid DNA, the resulting panel of Tet1-functionalized polymers formed particles with similar particle size as particles formed with untargeted HPMA-oligolysine copolymers. The highest cellular uptake in neuron-like differentiated PC-12 cells was observed using polymers with intermediate Tet1 peptide incorporation. Compared to untargeted polymers, polymers with optimal incorporation of Tet1 increased gene delivery to neuron-like PC-12 cells by over an order of magnitude but had no effect compared to control polymers in transfecting NIH/3T3 control cells.Biomaterials 09/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor