Perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists clinical practice guideline.

The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.65). 06/2007; 83(5 Suppl):S27-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.02.099
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A minority of patients having cardiac procedures (15% to 20%) consume more than 80% of the blood products transfused at operation. Blood must be viewed as a scarce resource that carries risks and benefits. A careful review of available evidence can provide guidelines to allocate this valuable resource and improve patient outcomes.
We reviewed all available published evidence related to blood conservation during cardiac operations, including randomized controlled trials, published observational information, and case reports. Conventional methods identified the level of evidence available for each of the blood conservation interventions. After considering the level of evidence, recommendations were made regarding each intervention using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology classification scheme.
Review of published reports identified a high-risk profile associated with increased postoperative blood transfusion. Six variables stand out as important indicators of risk: (1) advanced age, (2) low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), (3) preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, (4) reoperative or complex procedures, (5) emergency operations, and (6) noncardiac patient comorbidities. Careful review revealed preoperative and perioperative interventions that are likely to reduce bleeding and postoperative blood transfusion. Preoperative interventions that are likely to reduce blood transfusion include identification of high-risk patients who should receive all available preoperative and perioperative blood conservation interventions and limitation of antithrombotic drugs. Perioperative blood conservation interventions include use of antifibrinolytic drugs, selective use of off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery, routine use of a cell-saving device, and implementation of appropriate transfusion indications. An important intervention is application of a multimodality blood conservation program that is institution based, accepted by all health care providers, and that involves well thought out transfusion algorithms to guide transfusion decisions.
Based on available evidence, institution-specific protocols should screen for high-risk patients, as blood conservation interventions are likely to be most productive for this high-risk subset. Available evidence-based blood conservation techniques include (1) drugs that increase preoperative blood volume (eg, erythropoietin) or decrease postoperative bleeding (eg, antifibrinolytics), (2) devices that conserve blood (eg, intraoperative blood salvage and blood sparing interventions), (3) interventions that protect the patient's own blood from the stress of operation (eg, autologous predonation and normovolemic hemodilution), (4) consensus, institution-specific blood transfusion algorithms supplemented with point-of-care testing, and most importantly, (5) a multimodality approach to blood conservation combining all of the above.

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    ABSTRACT: Intra-operative cell salvage (CS) was reported to be ineffective, safe and not cost-effective in low-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but studies in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of intra-operative CS in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with CPB. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly assigned to either with intra-operative CS group (Group CS) or without intra-operative CS group (Group C). Study endpoints were defined as perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, perioperative impairment of blood coagulative function, postoperative adverse events and costs of transfusion-related. Both the proportion and quantity of perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion were significantly lower in Group CS than that in Group C (p=0.0002, <0.0001, respectively). The incidence of residual heparin and total impairment of blood coagulative function in the 24 hours after surgery, the incidence of postoperative excessive bleeding, were significantly higher in Group CS than that in Group C (p=0.018, 0.042, 0.034, respectively). Cost of both allogeneic RBC transfusion and total allogeneic blood transfusion were significantly lower in Group CS than that in Group C (p<0.001, =0.002, respectively). Cost of total blood transfusion was significantly higher in Group CS than that in Group C (p =0.001). Intra-operative CS in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with CPB is effective, generally safe, and cost-effective in developed countries but not in China.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2015; 12(4):322-8. DOI:10.7150/ijms.11227 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unnecessary perioperative transfusions are likely to be related to increased morbidity and additional costs in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood transfusion practice during and after adult cardiac surgery in a referral university hospital in Iran. In a descriptive study, we collected data from 153 adult patients underwent cardiac surgery at Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran from January to March 2013. The variables were patients' demographic, operative and post-operative data and the numbers of transfused packed red blood cell (PC) units and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) during and after cardiac surgery. Then we evaluated patients' and physicians' related causes of relatively increased transfusion rate in our patients and compared them with literature. Of 153 patients, 96.8% received PC and 54.9% transfused FFP during or after surgery. Most of the transfusions were done after operation in intensive care unit (ICU). Also, 20% and 17% of the patients underwent transfusion of more than 6 units of PC and FFP, respectively. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction of the patients was 42.5 ± 10.9%. A significant number of patients had anemia (especially women) or received anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents preoperatively. Thirteen percent of the patients underwent emergency operations and 12.3% had re-exploration. The results of this study demonstrate that the cardiac surgery patients receive a relatively greater number of PC or FFP units during and after the operation in our center. This finding may be explained to some extent by the fact that the sicker and more co-morbid patients referred to our center and such patients are more anemic and undergoing more emergent and complex procedures. Moreover, Transfusion strategy or protocol should be updated, especially after the operation in ICU.
    11/2014; 3(4):e21772. DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.21772
  • New England Journal of Medicine 03/2015; 372(11):1069-70. DOI:10.1056/NEJMe1415394 · 54.42 Impact Factor

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