Article

Perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists clinical practice guideline.

The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.65). 06/2007; 83(5 Suppl):S27-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.02.099
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A minority of patients having cardiac procedures (15% to 20%) consume more than 80% of the blood products transfused at operation. Blood must be viewed as a scarce resource that carries risks and benefits. A careful review of available evidence can provide guidelines to allocate this valuable resource and improve patient outcomes.
We reviewed all available published evidence related to blood conservation during cardiac operations, including randomized controlled trials, published observational information, and case reports. Conventional methods identified the level of evidence available for each of the blood conservation interventions. After considering the level of evidence, recommendations were made regarding each intervention using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology classification scheme.
Review of published reports identified a high-risk profile associated with increased postoperative blood transfusion. Six variables stand out as important indicators of risk: (1) advanced age, (2) low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), (3) preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, (4) reoperative or complex procedures, (5) emergency operations, and (6) noncardiac patient comorbidities. Careful review revealed preoperative and perioperative interventions that are likely to reduce bleeding and postoperative blood transfusion. Preoperative interventions that are likely to reduce blood transfusion include identification of high-risk patients who should receive all available preoperative and perioperative blood conservation interventions and limitation of antithrombotic drugs. Perioperative blood conservation interventions include use of antifibrinolytic drugs, selective use of off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery, routine use of a cell-saving device, and implementation of appropriate transfusion indications. An important intervention is application of a multimodality blood conservation program that is institution based, accepted by all health care providers, and that involves well thought out transfusion algorithms to guide transfusion decisions.
Based on available evidence, institution-specific protocols should screen for high-risk patients, as blood conservation interventions are likely to be most productive for this high-risk subset. Available evidence-based blood conservation techniques include (1) drugs that increase preoperative blood volume (eg, erythropoietin) or decrease postoperative bleeding (eg, antifibrinolytics), (2) devices that conserve blood (eg, intraoperative blood salvage and blood sparing interventions), (3) interventions that protect the patient's own blood from the stress of operation (eg, autologous predonation and normovolemic hemodilution), (4) consensus, institution-specific blood transfusion algorithms supplemented with point-of-care testing, and most importantly, (5) a multimodality approach to blood conservation combining all of the above.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Jan 23, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
114 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this triple blinded randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid when used in conjunction with hypotensive anaesthesia exclusively for Le Fort I osteotomies. 49 patients undergoing Le Fort 1 osteotomy for correction of dentofacial deformity were divided into two groups; Group 1 received a placebo of saline 5ml and Group 2 received 10mg/kg body weight of tranexamic acid. The operating surgeon, anaesthetist and investigator were blinded. The variables of interest recorded in this study included the change in Hb%, PCV, total blood loss, total operating time and quality of the surgical field using Fromme’s Ordinal Scale. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found between the following variables: post-operative Hb%, drop in Hb%, post-operative PCV, drop in PCV, total surgical blood loss, total operating time and quality of surgical field (P<0.05). Group 2 patients exhibited a smaller drop in Hb% and PCV, with a lower Fromme’s Ordinal Scale value and decreased total blood loss and operating time. In conclusion single preoperative administration of tranexamic acid in the dose of 10mg/kg, when combined with hypotensive anaesthesia is effective in controlling blood loss with regards to single piece Le Fort 1 surgery. Scientific Review Board Reference Number: SRB/SDMDS002MF10 Institutional Human Ethical Committee Reference Number: IHEC/SDMDS002MF10
    Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2014.03.003 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Many cardiac procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) still require intraoperative transfusion. Retrograde autologous priming (RAP) has been introduced to decrease haemodilution and the blood transfusion rate. This study is designed to determine the influence or RAP on intraoperative haematocrit, transfusion and its clinical consequences.METHODS The RAP effect was retrospectively studied in 753 patients during contemporary cardiac surgery, targeting a haematocrit of 25%. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors influencing intraoperative haematocrit, transfusion rate and transfusion quantity.RESULTSRAP was used in 498 patients and compared with 255 controls. RAP decreased the haemodilution level (nadir haematocrit 26.8 standard deviation [SD] 4.0% in RAP vs 25.8 SD 3.6% in controls; P = 0.001) and transfusion frequency (26.1 vs 33.3%, P = 0.04), despite smaller patients (body surface area [BSA] 1.86 SD 0.20 m2 vs 1.91 SD 0.21 m2 in RAP vs controls; P = 0.002) with lower preoperative haematocrit (38.9 SD 4.4% vs 40.5 SD 4.6%; P < 0.001). Optimal RAP volume was overall 475 ml (ROC area 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.60; P = 0.04) and 375 ml in patients with BSA <1.7 m2 (ROC area 0.63; 95% CI 0.54-0.73; P = 0.008) to decrease the transfusion incidence. Multivariate analysis revealed RAP volume as a significant determinant of nadir haematocrit (β = 0.003, 95% CI 0.002-0.004, P < 0.001) and transfusion rate (odds ratio (OR) = 0.997, 95% CI 0.996-0.999, P < 0.001), independent of BSA, gender and preoperative haematocrit.CONCLUSION Retrograde autologous priming is an effective adjunct to decrease the blood transfusion rate, coping with the CPB-related haemodilution and its adverse clinical effects. A RAP volume individualized to each patient offers most benefit as part of a multidisciplinary blood conservation approach.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 03/2013; DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt085 · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adenosine di-phosphate receptor antagonists (ADPRAs) blunt hemostasis for several days after administration. This effect, aimed at preventing cardiac ischemic complications particularly in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), may increase perioperative bleeding in the case of cardiac surgery. Practice Guidelines recommend withholding ADPRAs for at least 5days prior to surgery, though with a weak base of evidence. The purpose of this study was to systematically review observational and experimental studies of early or late preoperative discontinuation of ADPRAs prior to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with ACS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases up to December 2011; and reference lists. Observational and experimental studies that compared early ADPRA discontinuation with late discontinuation, or no discontinuation, in patients with ACS undergoing CABG. RESULTS: There were 19 studies, including 14,046 participants, 395 deaths and 309 reoperations due to bleeding. ADPRA late discontinuation up to CABG was associated with an increased risk of postoperative mortality (OR 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 1.93) and reoperations due to bleeding (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.47 to 2.62). Between-study heterogeneity was low. Meta-analysis limited to high quality or prospective studies gave consistent results. In most instances, the 95% prediction intervals for summary risk estimates confirmed the risk across study groups. CONCLUSIONS: ADPRA late discontinuation prior to CABG is associated with an increased risk of death and reoperations due to bleeding in patients with ACS. The confidence in the estimates of risk for late discontinuation is moderate to high.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2013; 168(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.12.087 · 6.18 Impact Factor