Distinct functional domains in nesprin-1α and nesprin-2β bind directly to emerin and both interactions are disrupted in X-linked Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
ABSTRACT Emerin and specific isoforms of nesprin-1 and -2 are nuclear membrane proteins which are binding partners in multi-protein complexes spanning the nuclear envelope. We report here the characterisation of the residues both in emerin and in nesprin-1alpha and -2beta which are involved in their interaction and show that emerin requires nesprin-1 or -2 to retain it at the nuclear membrane. Using several protein-protein interaction methods, we show that residues 368 to 627 of nesprin-1alpha and residues 126 to 219 of nesprin-2beta, which show high homology to one another, both mediate binding to emerin residues 140-176. This region has previously been implicated in binding to F-actin, beta-catenin and lamin A/C suggesting that it is critical for emerin function. Confirmation that these protein domains interact in vivo was shown using GFP-dominant negative assays. Exogenous expression of either of these nesprin fragments in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells displaced endogenous emerin from the nuclear envelope and reduced the targeting of newly synthesised emerin. Furthermore, we are the first to report that emerin mutations which give rise to X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, disrupt binding to both nesprin-1alpha and -2beta isoforms, further indicating a role of nesprins in the pathology of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
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ABSTRACT: Proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE) are associated with a range of inherited disorders, most commonly involving muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy, as exemplified by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). EDMD is both genetically and phenotypically variable, and some evidence of modifier genes has been reported. Six genes have so far been linked to EDMD, four encoding proteins associated with the LINC complex that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. However, 50% of patients have no identifiable mutations in these genes. Using a candidate approach, we have identified putative disease-causing variants in the SUN1 and SUN2 genes, also encoding LINC complex components, in patients with EDMD and related myopathies. Our data also suggest that SUN1 and SUN2 can act as disease modifier genes in individuals with co-segregating mutations in other EDMD genes. Five SUN1/SUN2 variants examined impaired rearward nuclear repositioning in fibroblasts, confirming defective LINC complex function in nuclear-cytoskeletal coupling. Furthermore, myotubes from a patient carrying compound heterozygous SUN1 mutations displayed gross defects in myonuclear organization. This was accompanied by loss of recruitment of centrosomal marker, pericentrin, to the NE and impaired microtubule nucleation at the NE, events that are required for correct myonuclear arrangement. These defects were recapitulated in C2C12 myotubes expressing exogenous SUN1 variants, demonstrating a direct link between SUN1 mutation and impairment of nuclear-microtubule coupling and myonuclear positioning. Our findings strongly support an important role for SUN1 and SUN2 in muscle disease pathogenesis and support the hypothesis that defects in the LINC complex contribute to disease pathology through disruption of nuclear-microtubule association, resulting in defective myonuclear positioning.PLoS Genetics 09/2014; 10(9):e1004605. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004605 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Cell nuclei are physically integrated with the cytoskeleton through the LINC complex (for LI̲nker of N̲ucleoskeleton and C̲ytoskeleton), a structure that spans the nuclear envelope to link the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. Outer nuclear membrane KASH domain proteins and inner nuclear membrane SUN domain proteins interact to form the core of the LINC complex. In this review we provide a comprehensive analysis of the reported protein-protein interactions for KASH and SUN domain proteins. This critical structure, directly connecting the genome with the rest of the cell, contributes to a myriad of cellular functions and, when perturbed, is associated with human disease.Biological Chemistry 01/2015; 396(4). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2014-0267 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During skeletal muscle development, nuclei move dynamically through myotubes in a microtubule-dependent manner, driven by the microtubule motor protein kinesin-1. Loss of kinesin-1 leads to improperly positioned nuclei in culture and in vivo. Two models have been proposed to explain how kinesin-1 functions to move nuclei in myotubes. In the cargo model, kinesin-1 acts directly from the surface of the nucleus, whereas in an alternative model, kinesin-1 moves nuclei indirectly by sliding anti-parallel microtubules. Here, we test the hypothesis that an ensemble of Kif5B motors acts from the nuclear envelope to distribute nuclei throughout the length of syncytial myotubes. First, using an inducible dimerization system, we show that controlled recruitment of truncated, constitutively active kinesin-1 motors to the nuclear envelope is sufficient to prevent the nuclear aggregation resulting from depletion of endogenous kinesin-1. Second, we identify a conserved kinesin light chain (KLC)-binding motif in the nuclear envelope proteins nesprin-1 and nesprin-2, and show that recruitment of the motor complex to the nucleus via this LEWD motif is essential for nuclear distribution. Together, our findings demonstrate that the nucleus is a kinesin-1 cargo in myotubes and that nesprins function as nuclear cargo adaptors. The importance of achieving and maintaining proper nuclear position is not restricted to muscle fibers, suggesting that the nesprin-dependent recruitment of kinesin-1 to the nuclear envelope through the interaction of a conserved LEWD motif with kinesin light chain might be a general mechanism for cell-type-specific nuclear positioning during development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 01/2015; 142(1):218-28. DOI:10.1242/dev.114769 · 6.27 Impact Factor