Stigma towards people with mental illness in developing countries in Asia.
ABSTRACT There is a wide range of literature on stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness. Most studies, however, derive from Western countries. This review aims at summarizing results from developing countries in Asia published between 1996-2006.
Medline search focusing on English-speaking literature.
Comparable to Western countries, there is a widespread tendency to stigmatize and discriminate people with mental illness in Asia. People with mental illness are considered as dangerous and aggressive which in turn increases the social distance. The role of supernatural, religious and magical approaches to mental illness is prevailing. The pathway to care is often shaped by scepticism towards mental health services and the treatments offered. Stigma experienced from family members is pervasive. Moreover, social disapproval and devaluation of families with mentally ill individuals are an important concern. This holds true particularly with regards to marriage, marital separation and divorce. Psychic symptoms, unlike somatic symptoms, are construed as socially disadvantageous. Thus, somatisation of psychiatric disorders is widespread in Asia. The most urgent problem of mental health care in Asia is the lack of personal and financial resources. Thus, mental health professionals are mostly located in urban areas. This increases the barriers to seek help and contributes to the stigmatization of the mentally ill. The attitude of mental health professionals towards people with mental illness is often stigmatizing.
This review revealed that the stigmatization of people with mental illness is widespread in Asia. The features of stigmatization-beliefs about causes of and attitudes towards mental illness, consequences for help-seeking-have more commonalities than differences to Western countries.
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ABSTRACT: There are few reports of severe self-injury to eyes in patients with schizophrenia. We report on a 41-year-old woman, primarily visiting for symptoms of endophthalmitis resulting from self-inflicted needles. Further evaluations established the diagnosis of schizophrenia because of arguing and commenting on auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms including social isolation, decreased self-care, blunt affect, and a monotone voice. The patient had been suffering from auditory hallucinations for several years and found relief in bodily pain caused by needles. The patient received 6 mg of risperidone. Hallucinations were resolved and self-injury behaviour was not repeated.01/2015; 2015:960579. DOI:10.1155/2015/960579
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to provide a review of potential barriers to seeking mental health services among Filipinos. Research on help-seeking behaviours among Filipinos living in the Philippines and other countries (e.g., US, Canada, and Australia) suggest that mental health services in the Philippines are inaccessible and monetarily prohibitive, and beliefs about the aetiology and nature of mental illness are inconsistent with the medical model. Other cultural variables such as shame, stigma, and collectivist beliefs also discourage Filipinos from seeking help from mental health professionals. Furthermore, these variables could account for the preference for folk healers and lay networks in treating mental illnesses. As such, cultural and economic factors need to be accounted for in conceptualizing Filipinos’ utilization of mental health services. Implications and suggestions to aid practice were also discussed.05/2014; DOI:10.1080/21507686.2014.913641
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to describe the attitudes of primary care physicians towards mental health patients in Hong Kong, especially to examine the doctors' views on schizophrenia and depression, and the influence of their demographic variables. A questionnaire developed by the research team was sent to members of Hong Kong College of Family Physicians. Potential respondents were allocated on equal basis to one of the two sets of questionnaire, set 1 for clinical vignette of schizophrenia and set 2 for depression. A response rate of 37% (500 of 1,360) was achieved. There were 255 and 245 returned questionnaires for set 1 and set 2, respectively. Comparing the two clinical vignettes, there were large differences in their willingness to have the patient on practice list for mental issues (40.0% for schizophrenia versus 71.5% for depression) and to deal with the patient's needs (37.0% versus 60.9%). Multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that doctors with the following demographic factors tended to have more worries or stigma on mental health patients: "having longer years of practice," "being female," "working in hospital," "employed in public sector," and "not having a relative/friend with mental health problems." Our study shows that two-thirds of primary care doctors are prepared to look after patients with depression, which is substantially higher than that for schizophrenia. In contrast with the Australian findings, the experienced doctors in Hong Kong have more negative attitudes towards mental health patients than the younger ones.Asia-Pacific Psychiatry 03/2013; 5(1):E19-28. DOI:10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00208.x · 0.42 Impact Factor