Comparison of two anticonvulsants in a randomized, single-blind treatment of hypomanic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder
ABSTRACT Oxcarbazepine was compared to divalproex to assess clinical effectiveness of a proven agent, divalproex, against a newer, less studied agent, oxcarbazepine, in the treatment of hypomania.
Thirty patients with bipolar disorder, currently hypomanic, were randomized to receive oxcarbazepine or divalproex as add-on or monotherapy for 8 weeks. A rater blind to treatment assignment performed all symptom ratings. Hypomania and depression were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Clinician Version (IDS-C). Random regression models were used to assess clinical symptom scores.
There were no significant differences of YMRS or IDS-C scores between groups. Mean YMRS scores at baseline were 22.07+/-5.86 and 20.53+/-6.02 for the oxcarbazepine and the divalproex groups, respectively. Mean percent reduction from baseline to week 8 for the YMRS was 63.8% and 79.0% for oxcarbazepine and divalproex groups, respectively. Mean percent reduction from baseline to week 8 for the IDS-C was 48.7% versus 19.7% for oxcarbazepine and divalproex groups, respectively. Significant antimanic efficacy was noted for each medication. Both medications were generally well tolerated.
In this pilot study, oxcarbazepine was as effective as divalproex in the treatment of hypomania. Further controlled trials are warranted.
- SourceAvailable from: Norbert Kovács[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although there is a relatively high prevalence of both idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and epilepsy in the elderly population, and PD occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy, there are no studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in people with PD. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man with PD who experienced several seizures. The initiation of antiepileptic treatment with oxcarbazepine (OXC) provoked a severe, long-lasting psychotic state. The patient had previously experienced similar psychotic episodes during dopamine agonist therapy. Because recent animal studies have proven that OXC and its active metabolite exert important dopamine- and serotonin-promoting effects in the limbic area, we assumed that in our case the OXC-induced psychosis was mediated by the dopaminergic system. We concluded that OXC should be used with care in cases of a constellation of PD and epilepsy because of its possible psychiatric side effects. The dopaminergic effect of OXC and its active metabolite might also play an ambivalent, but important role in the treatment of alcohol addiction and bipolar disorder; therefore, further studies are required to investigate its psychopharmacological aspects.Epilepsy & Behavior 05/2008; 12(3):492-3. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.12.010 · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a lifelong serious condition which often renders the application of standard treatment options for patients' comorbid conditions, such as bipolar disorder I, risky - especially for acute manic episodes. We present such a case whereby the application of standard anti-manic treatments would have jeopardized a patient whose physical condition was already compromised by DM. We report the case of a 55-year-old female with a history of type-1 DM since the age of 11, and severe ocular and renal vascular complications thereof. While on the waiting list for pancreatic islet cell transplantation, she developed a manic episode that proved recalcitrant to a treatment with gabapentin, lorazepam and quetiapine. Moreover, her mental state affected adversely her already compromised glycemic control, requiring her psychiatric hospitalization. Her psychotropic medication was almost discontinued and replaced by oxcarbazepine (OXC) up to 1800 mg/day for 10 days. The patient's mental state improved steadily and on discharge, 3 weeks later, she showed an impressive improvement rate of over 70% on the YMRS. Moreover, she remains normothymic 6 months after discharge, with OXC at 1200 mg/day. Standard prescribing guidelines for acute mania recommend a combination of an antipsychotic with lithium or, alternatively, a combination of an antipsychotic with valproate or carbamazepine. However, in our case, administration of lithium was at least relatively contra-indicated because of patient's already compromised renal function. Furthermore, antipsychotics increase glucose levels and thus were also relatively contra-indicated. Moreover, the imminent post-transplantation immunosuppressant treatment with immuno-modulating medicines also contra-indicated both valproate and carbamazepine. Despite the severe methodological limitations of case reports in general, the present one suggests that OXC as monotherapy might be both safe and efficacious in the treatment of acute mania in patients with early-onset type-1 DM, whose already compromised physical condition constitutes an absolute or relative contra-indication for the administration of standard treatments, though there are no, as yet, randomized clinical trials attesting to its efficacy unambiguously.Annals of General Psychiatry 02/2007; 6:25. DOI:10.1186/1744-859X-6-25 · 1.53 Impact Factor