Family restaurant choices are associated with child and adult overweight status in Mexican-American families.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence links restaurant food with overweight, but little is known about the relative roles of different types of restaurants, or the effects among Latinos. Using baseline data from an intervention trial, this study tested whether the type of restaurant a family reports visiting most often is associated with the body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) of children and adults. Children, ages 4 to 7, and one primary caregiver for each child (94% mothers), were recruited through public elementary schools in southern San Diego County, CA, with at least 70% Latino enrollment. Weight and height measurements and survey information assessing family restaurant patronage were collected from 223 pairs of children and adults. Logistic regression results showed that children were most likely to be at risk of overweight (BMI >or=85th percentile) in families who ate most often at fast-food chains (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 4.3). Parent overweight (BMI >or=25) was associated with eating at American restaurants, primarily buffets (odds ratio: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 6.2). Both child and parent BMI were lowest in families selecting Mexican restaurants. Eating at fast-food chains and other Anglo-oriented restaurants may contribute to higher obesity rates linked to acculturation among Mexican Americans.
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ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to assess how diners' taste evaluations change based on how much they paid for an all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet. Diners at an AYCE restaurant were either charged $4 or $8 for an Italian lunch buffet. Their taste evaluation of each piece of pizza consumed was taken along with other measures of behavior and self-perceptions. Their ratings were analyzed using 2 × 3 mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA). Diners who paid $4 for their buffet rated their initial piece of pizza as less tasty, less satisfactory and less enjoyable. A downward trend was exhibited for each of these measures with each additional piece (P = 0.02). Those who paid $8 did not experience the same decrement in taste, satisfaction and enjoyment. Paying less for an AYCE experience may face the unintended consequence of food that is both less enjoyable and rapidly declining in taste and enjoyability. In a sense, AYCE customers get what they pay for.Practical ApplicationsThis study demonstrates that when eating in a less expensive all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet, people find the food less tasty. Such a consequence means a less enjoyable experience for the consumers, which may have implications for repeat purchase. By employing a low-price strategy, AYCE restaurants can attract the initial business of customers. However, these customers may end up evaluating the food unfavorably. As a result, the low-price strategy may not be as profitable in the long term. This study has implications for both consumers and restaurants.Journal of Sensory Studies 10/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1111/joss.12117 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P < .05 ), maternal control of child's eating routines (P < .03), and food resource management skills (P < .01), and with higher scores on child control of snacking (P < .03) and negative mealtime practices (P < .05). Multiple regression results revealed that greater maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P < .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher scores on food resource management skills reduced the odds of child overweight (odds ratios = .72 - .95, P < .01). Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group.Appetite 04/2014; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.04.015 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differences in the neighborhood food environment may contribute to disparities in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of neighborhood food environments with body mass index (BMI) and obesity after control for neighborhood walkability. This study employed a cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of BMI and obesity among 13,102 adult residents of New York City. We constructed measures of the food environment and walkability for the neighborhood, defined as a half-mile buffer around the study subject's home address. Density of BMI-healthy food outlets (supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and natural food stores) was inversely associated with BMI. Mean adjusted BMI was similar in the first two quintiles of healthy food density (0 and 1.13 stores/km2, respectively), but declined across the three higher quintiles and was 0.80 units lower [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-1.32] in the fifth quintile (10.98 stores/km2) than in the first. The prevalence ratio for obesity comparing the fifth quintile of healthy food density with the lowest two quintiles combined was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.97). These associations remained after control for two neighborhood walkability measures, population density and land-use mix. The prevalence ratio for obesity for the fourth versus first quartile of population density was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and for land-use mix was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.97). Increasing density of food outlets categorized as BMI-unhealthy was not significantly associated with BMI or obesity. Access to BMI-healthy food stores is associated with lower BMI and lower prevalence of obesity.Environmental Health Perspectives 04/2009; 117(3):442-7. DOI:10.1289/ehp.11590 · 7.03 Impact Factor