Increasing evidence links restaurant food with overweight, but little is known about the relative roles of different types of restaurants, or the effects among Latinos. Using baseline data from an intervention trial, this study tested whether the type of restaurant a family reports visiting most often is associated with the body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) of children and adults. Children, ages 4 to 7, and one primary caregiver for each child (94% mothers), were recruited through public elementary schools in southern San Diego County, CA, with at least 70% Latino enrollment. Weight and height measurements and survey information assessing family restaurant patronage were collected from 223 pairs of children and adults. Logistic regression results showed that children were most likely to be at risk of overweight (BMI >or=85th percentile) in families who ate most often at fast-food chains (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 4.3). Parent overweight (BMI >or=25) was associated with eating at American restaurants, primarily buffets (odds ratio: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 6.2). Both child and parent BMI were lowest in families selecting Mexican restaurants. Eating at fast-food chains and other Anglo-oriented restaurants may contribute to higher obesity rates linked to acculturation among Mexican Americans.
"wine. Similarly, women give wine higher taste ratings when it is more expensive (Almenberg and Dreber 2010). Wine that is thought to be more expensive is also associated with greater stimulation of the pleasure centers of the brain (Plassmann et al. 2008). In general, menu prices are used by consumers as a signal of restaurant quality (Hardesty et al. 2007; Kim and Jang 2013). Our reading of the literature leads us to hypothesize that one would rate pizza from an $8 pizza buffet as tasting better than the same pizza at a $4 buffet. However, the rating profile of additional slices of pizza as one continues to eat is unclear. If one has paid a relatively high amount for the pizza, it may be"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to assess how diners' taste evaluations change based on how much they paid for an all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet. Diners at an AYCE restaurant were either charged $4 or $8 for an Italian lunch buffet. Their taste evaluation of each piece of pizza consumed was taken along with other measures of behavior and self-perceptions. Their ratings were analyzed using 2 × 3 mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA). Diners who paid $4 for their buffet rated their initial piece of pizza as less tasty, less satisfactory and less enjoyable. A downward trend was exhibited for each of these measures with each additional piece (P = 0.02). Those who paid $8 did not experience the same decrement in taste, satisfaction and enjoyment. Paying less for an AYCE experience may face the unintended consequence of food that is both less enjoyable and rapidly declining in taste and enjoyability. In a sense, AYCE customers get what they pay for.Practical ApplicationsThis study demonstrates that when eating in a less expensive all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet, people find the food less tasty. Such a consequence means a less enjoyable experience for the consumers, which may have implications for repeat purchase. By employing a low-price strategy, AYCE restaurants can attract the initial business of customers. However, these customers may end up evaluating the food unfavorably. As a result, the low-price strategy may not be as profitable in the long term. This study has implications for both consumers and restaurants.
"Negative mealtime practices, including watching TV while eating and eating at fast food restaurants, did not significantly influence either child weight indicator. Such relationships have been found in previous studies (Coon et al., 2001; Duerksen et al., 2007; MacFarlane et al., 2009), though some of this research used older and more economically advantaged samples (Coon et al., 2001; MacFarlane et al., 2009), and none assessed whether the parent was present when the child ate. Indeed, the bulk of studies investigating parental feeding styles and mealtime practices did not assess eating meals as a family or with a parent (e.g., Hendy, Williams, Camise, Eckman, & Hedemann, 2009; Kroller & Warschburger, 2008; Melgar-Quinonez & Kaiser, 2004; Patrick et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P < .05 ), maternal control of child's eating routines (P < .03), and food resource management skills (P < .01), and with higher scores on child control of snacking (P < .03) and negative mealtime practices (P < .05). Multiple regression results revealed that greater maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P < .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher scores on food resource management skills reduced the odds of child overweight (odds ratios = .72 - .95, P < .01). Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group.
"However, other studies found no associations [7,11,23]. Despite extensive evidence linking fast food consumption with high energy and fat intake, nutrient-poor food, and increased overweight and obesity; these mixed results on the influence of fast food outlets, can be attributed to a number of factors . Researchers have used various geographic scales of analysis (from state to Census block group [9,12,33,41,42]) for food environment measures. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes.
Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference) for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth's residence.
Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8-3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5-3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures. However, contrary to our expectation, increased distance to the nearest fast food outlet was associated with higher BMI z-score, but not with waist circumference.
Food environments conducive to healthy eating may significantly influence health behaviors and outcomes. Efforts to increase the availability of supermarkets providing options/selections for health-promoting foods may significantly improve the dietary intake and reduce adiposity among youth with diabetes.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 06/2012; 9(1):81. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-81 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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