Chronic pancreatitis: Challenges and advances in pathogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, and therapy
ABSTRACT Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by progressive pancreatic damage that eventually results in significant impairment of exocrine as well as endocrine functions of the gland. In Western societies, the commonest association of chronic pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of CP has improved in recent years, though important advances that have been made with respect to delineating the mechanisms responsible for the development of pancreatic fibrosis (a constant feature of CP) following repeated acute attacks of pancreatic necroinflammation (the necrosis-fibrosis concept). The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are now established as key cells in fibrogenesis, particularly when activated either directly by toxic factors associated with pancreatitis (such as ethanol, its metabolites or oxidant stress) or by cytokines released during pancreatic necroinflammation. In recent years, research effort has also focused on the genetic abnormalities that may predispose to CP. Genes regulating trypsinogen activation/inactivation and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function have received particular attention. Mutations in these genes are now increasingly recognized for their potential 'disease modifier' role in distinct forms of CP including alcoholic, tropical, and idiopathic pancreatitis. Treatment of uncomplicated CP is usually conservative with the major aim being to effectively alleviate pain, maldigestion and diabetes, and consequently, to improve the patient's quality of life. Surgical and endoscopic interventions are reserved for complications such as pseudocysts, abscess, and malignancy.
SourceAvailable from: Vincenzo NeriAcute and Chronic Pancreatitis, Edited by Luis Rodrigo, 01/2015: chapter 7: pages 121-152; INTECH., ISBN: 978-953-51-2026-1
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by recurrent pancreatic injury, resulting in inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. There are currently no drugs limiting pancreatic fibrosis associated with CP, and there is a definite need to fill this void in patient care. Pancreatitis was induced in C57/BL6 mice using supraphysiologic doses of cerulein, and apigenin treatment (once daily, 50 μg per mouse by oral gavage) was initiated 1 wk into the recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) protocol. Pancreata were harvested after 4 wk of RAP. Immunostaining with fibronectin antibody was used to quantify the extent of pancreatic fibrosis. To assess how apigenin may decrease organ fibrosis, we evaluated the effect of apigenin on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in vitro. Finally, we assessed apigenin's effect on the gene expression in PSCs stimulated with parathyroid hormone-related protein, a profibrotic and proinflammatory mediator of pancreatitis, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. After 4 wk of RAP, apigenin significantly reduced the fibrotic response to injury while preserving acinar units. Apigenin inhibited viability and induced apoptosis of PSCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Finally, apigenin reduced parathyroid hormone-related protein-stimulated increases in the PSC messenger RNA expression levels of extracellular matrix proteins collagen 1A1 and fibronectin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin-6. These in vivo and in vitro studies provide novel insights regarding apigenin's mechanism(s) of action in reducing the severity of RAP. Additional preclinical testing of apigenin analogs is warranted to develop a therapeutic agent for patients at risk for CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Surgical Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.02.032 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a complex inflammatory disorder that may progress to fibrosis and other irreversible features recognized as chronic pancreatitis (CP). Chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) protects the pancreas by degrading prematurely activated trypsinogen. Rare mutations are associated with CP in Europe and Asia. We evaluated the occurrence of CTRC variants in subjects with RAP, CP, and controls from the North American Pancreatitis Study II cohort. CP (n=694), RAP (n=448), and controls (n=1017) of European ancestry were evaluated. Subgroup analysis included CFTR and SPINK1 variants, alcohol, and smoking. We identified previously reported rare pathogenic CTRC A73T, R254W, and K247_R254del variants, intronic variants, and G60G (c.180 C>T; rs497078). Compared with controls (minor allele frequency (MAF)=10.8%), c.180T was associated with CP (MAF=16.8%, P<0.00001) but not RAP (MAF=11.9% P=NS). Trend test indicated co-dominant risk for CP (CT odds ratio (OR)=1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-1.64, P=0.0014; TT OR=3.98, 95% CI=2.10-7.56, P<0.0001). The T allele was significantly more frequent with concurrent pathogenic CFTR variants and/or SPINK1 N34S (combined 22.9% vs. 16.1%, OR 1.92, 95% C.I. 1.26-2.94, P=0.0023) and with alcoholic vs. non-alcoholic CP etiologies (20.8% vs. 12.4%, OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.30-2.79, P=0.0009). Alcohol and smoking generally occurred together, but the frequency of CTRC c.180 T in CP, but not RAP, was higher among never drinkers-ever smokers (22.2%) than ever drinker-never smokers (10.8%), suggesting that smoking rather than alcohol may be the driving factor in this association. The common CTRC variant c.180T acts as disease modifier that promotes progression from RAP to CP, especially in patients with CFTR or SPINK1 variants, alcohol, or smoking.01/2015; 6(1):e68. DOI:10.1038/ctg.2014.13