The validity of self-reports of alcohol consumption: State of the science and challenges for research
ABSTRACT To review three topics pertaining to the validity of alcohol self-reports: factors that influence response accuracy; the relative merits of different self-report approaches; and the utility of using alternative measures to confirm verbal reports.
Response behavior is influenced by the interaction of social context factors, respondent characteristics, and task attributes. Although research has advanced our knowledge about self-report methods, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, there is a need to investigate how task demands interact with different patterns of drinking behavior to affect response accuracy. There is also a continuing need to use multiple data sources to examine the extent of self-report response bias, and to determine whether it varies as a function of respondent characteristics or assessment timing.
Self-report methods offer a reliable and valid approach to measuring alcohol consumption. The accuracy of such methods, however, can be improved by research directed at understanding the processes involved in response behavior.
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- "Numerous studies have examined the reliability and validity of the TLFB and Form-90 across multiple administration methods, including comparisons between telephone and computer (Sobell et al., 1996), online and in-person (Pedersen et al., 2012), individual and group (Pedersen and LaBrie, 2006), and telephone versus selfadministration (Maisto et al., 2008). The general conclusion from these studies is that both assessments, regardless of the method of administration, typically produce reliable and valid estimates of alcohol consumption in the context of clinical research (Del Boca and Darkes, 2003). Self-reported alcohol consumption can be verified using collateral informants (i.e., proxy reporters) or alcohol biomarkers , although both approaches have limitations and currently most researchers ultimately rely on self-reported alcohol consumption for primary analyses. "
ABSTRACT: Over the past 60 years, the view that "alcoholism" is a disease for which the only acceptable goal of treatment is abstinence has given way to the recognition that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) occur on a continuum of severity, for which a variety of treatment options are appropriate. However, because the available treatments for AUDs are not effective for everyone, more research is needed to develop novel and more efficacious treatments to address the range of AUD severity in diverse populations. Here we offer recommendations for the design and analysis of alcohol treatment trials, with a specific focus on the careful conduct of randomized clinical trials of medications and nonpharmacological interventions for AUDs. This paper provides a narrative review of the quality of published clinical trials and recommendations for the optimal design and analysis of treatment trials for AUDs. Despite considerable improvements in the design of alcohol clinical trials over the past 2 decades, many studies of AUD treatments have used faulty design features and statistical methods that are known to produce biased estimates of treatment efficacy. The published statistical and methodological literatures provide clear guidance on methods to improve clinical trial design and analysis. Consistent use of state-of-the-art design features and analytic approaches will enhance the internal and external validity of treatment trials for AUDs across the spectrum of severity. The ultimate result of this attention to methodological rigor is that better treatment options will be identified for patients with an AUD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/acer.12800 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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- "However, confidentiality was assured in the consent and through a Certificate of Confidentiality. Also, studies examining self-report measures like the G-TLFB have been shown to be both reliable and valid (Carney et al. 1998; Del Boca and Darkes 2002). "
ABSTRACT: Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.Journal of Gambling Behavior 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10899-015-9562-x · 1.28 Impact Factor
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- "Further potential limitations include the use of self-report measures, which are susceptible to mono-method and mono-rater biases. Although, self-reports offer a reliable and valid approach to assessing alcohol consumption  and both perceived parental monitoring and parent-reported monitoring have been associated with alcohol outcomes . The truncated scoring schemes of the sensation-seeking and parental monitoring measures limited variability in these measures potentially reducing our power to detect effects, and associations may be underestimated. "
ABSTRACT: We examined the time-varying effects of sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, and parental monitoring on heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms from ages 16 to 28 years. Participants were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, followed six times, biennially, between 2003 and 2013 (N = 662; mean age at Time 1 = 15.52, range = 12-18). Analyses used time-varying effect models, which estimate how the association between a predictor and an outcome differs over time without assuming the association follows a parametric function of time. Sensation seeking was a stable risk factor for heavy drinking, and lack of perseverance was stable risk factor for alcohol-related harms at each age. Parental monitoring was associated with lower rates of heavy drinking in adolescence and lower rates of alcohol harm until the age of 24 years. Moreover, high levels of parental monitoring moderated the association between personality traits and rates of harm at ages 17-20 years but only for youth high on lack of perseverance and low on sensation seeking. The results provide a better understanding of age-related changes in risk and protective factors of alcohol use across the transition to adulthood. Impulsive personality traits are stable risk factors for alcohol outcomes until the late-20s despite typical age-related declines in these traits and drinking. Moreover, parental monitoring buffers the association between personality traits and alcohol harm for specific youth during the transition to adulthood. Personality-targeted interventions may be effective beyond adolescence, and parenting interventions may help reduce harm among low perseverance, low sensation-seeking youth. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Adolescent Health 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.05.005 · 2.75 Impact Factor