Article

Microbiologic follow-up study in adult bronchiectasis

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Melbourne 3168, Australia.
Respiratory Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.92). 09/2007; 101(8):1633-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2007.03.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is minimal published longitudinal data about pathogenic microorganisms in adults with bronchiectasis. Therefore a study was undertaken to assess the microbiologic profile over time in bronchiectasis. A prospective study of clinical and microbiologic outcomes was performed. Subjects were assessed by a respiratory physician and sputum sample were collected for analysis. Subjects were followed up and had repeat assessment performed. Eighty-nine subjects were followed up for a period of 5.7+/-3.6 years. On initial assessment the two most common pathogens isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (47%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%) whilst 21% had no pathogens isolated. On follow-up review results were similar (40% H. influenzae, 18% P. aeruginosa and 26% no pathogens). The prevalence of antibiotic resistance of isolates increased from 13% to 30%. Analysis of a series of H. influenzae isolates showed they were nearly all nontypeable and all were different subtypes. Subjects with no pathogens isolated from their sputum had the mildest disease, while subjects with P. aeruginosa had the most severe bronchiectasis. Many subjects with bronchiectasis are colonized with the same bacterium over an average follow-up of 5 years. Different pathogens are associated with different patterns of clinical disease.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Elmer Villanueva, Jun 22, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
118 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A majority of the studies done on the western population have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many severe infections in patients with bronchiectasis as compared to other pathogens. There is scarcity of similar data from the Asian population. A prospective study was undertaken to identify the various pathogens isolated from the respiratory samples of 117 patients with bronchiectasis from south India and to compare the clinicomicrobiological profile of infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens were isolated from 63 (53.8%) patients. P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate (46.0%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and other pathogenic bacteria. Patients included in the P. aeruginosa group had a higher number of exacerbations (p: 0.008), greater number of hospital admissions (p: 0.007), a prolonged hospital stay (p: 0.03), and poor lung function, compared to the patients infected with the non-Pseudomonas group. It is necessary to investigate the etiology of respiratory tract infections among bronchiectasis patients followed by the prompt management of cases diagnosed with P. aeruginosa infections, so as to lower the morbidity and have a better prognosis.
    Journal of global infectious diseases 01/2015; 7(1):18. DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.150885
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The hallmark of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is recurrent bronchial infection, yet there are significant gaps in our understanding of pathogen persistence, resistance and exacerbation frequencies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key pathogen thought to be a marker of disease severity and progression, yet little is known if the infection risk is seen in those with milder disease or if there is any potential for eradication. These data are important in determining risk stratification and follow up. Methods and patient cohort A retrospective review of consecutive adult patients attending a specialist UK bronchiectasis clinic over a two-year recruitment period between July 2007 and June 2009 was performed. Analysis of our primary outcome, longitudinal microbiological status, was recorded based on routine clinical follow-up through to data capture point or date of death. Patients were stratified by lung function and infecting organism. Results 155 patients (mean (SD) age 62.2 (12.4) years; 60.1% female) were identified from clinic records with microbiological data for a median (IQR) follow up duration of 46 (35-62) months. Baseline mean FEV1% predicted was 60.6% (24.8) with mean exacerbation frequency of 4.42/year; 73.6% reported 3 or more exacerbations/year. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 90 (58.1%) patients and P. aeruginosa in 78 (50.3%) patients with persistent infection in 51 (56.7%) H. influenzae and 47 (60.3%) P. aeruginosa, respectively. Of the P. aeruginosa colonised patients, 16 (34%) became culture negative on follow-up with a mean of 5.2 negative sputum cultures/patient. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 5 out of 39 patients (12.8%) with minimal airflow limitation as compared to 18 out of 38 patients (47.4%) with severe airflow limitation. Although hospital admissions were significantly higher in the P. aeruginosa infected group (1.3 vs. 0.7 admissions per annum, p=0.035), overall exacerbation rates were the same (4.6 vs. 4.3, p=0.58). Independent predictors of P. aeruginosa colonisation were low FEV1% predicted (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.27-4.77) and polymicrobial colonisation (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.56-10.58). 17 (11%) patients were infected with multi-resistant strains; however, none were pan-resistant. Conclusions P. aeruginosa is associated with greater persistent infection rates and more hospital admissions than H. influenzae. Exacerbation rates, however, were similar; therefore H. influenzae causes significant out-patient morbidity. P. aeruginosa infection occurs across all strata of lung function impairment but is infrequently multi-resistant in bronchiectasis. Careful microbiology follow up is required even in those with well-preserved lung function.
    Respiratory Medicine 08/2014; 109(6). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2014.07.021 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical benefit of inhaled antibiotics in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis has not been established in randomised controlled trials. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and Gram-negative bacterial colonisation. Methods AIR-BX1 and AIR-BX2 were two double-blind, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials, which included patients aged 18 years or older who had bronchiectasis and history of positive sputum or bronchoscopic culture for target Gram-negative organisms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either AZLI or placebo (1:1). Randomisation was done without stratification and the code was generated by a Gilead designee. In both studies, two 4-week courses of AZLI 75 mg or placebo (three-times daily; eFlow nebulizer) were each followed by a 4-week off-treatment period. Primary endpoint was change from baseline Quality of Life-Bronchiectasis Respiratory Symptoms scores (QOL-B-RSS) at 4 weeks. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers are NCT01313624 for AIR-BX1 and NCT01314716 for AIR-BX2. Findings We recruited participants from 47 ambulatory clinics for AIR-BX1 and 65 ambulatory clinics for AIR-BX2; studies were done between April 25, 2011, and July 1, 2013. In AIR-BX1, of the 348 patients screened, 134 were randomly assigned to receive AZLI and 132 to receive placebo. In AIR-BX2, of the 404 patients screened, 136 were randomly assigned to receive AZLI and 138 to receive placebo. The difference between AZLI and placebo for adjusted mean change from baseline QOL-B-RSS was not significant at 4 weeks (0·8 [95% CI −3·1 to 4·7], p=0·68) in AIR-BX1, but was significant (4·6 [1·1 to 8·2], p=0·011) in AIR-BX2. The 4·6 point difference in QOL-B-RSS after 4 weeks in AIR-BX2 was not deemed clinically significant. In both studies, treatment-related adverse events were more common in the AZLI group than in the placebo group, as were discontinuations from adverse events. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were dyspnea, cough, and increased sputum. Each was more common for AZLI-treated than for placebo-treated patients, but the incidences were more balanced in AIR-BX2. Interpretation AZLI treatment did not provide significant clinical benefit in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, as measured by QOL-B-RSS, suggesting a continued need for placebo-controlled studies to establish the clinical benefit of inhaled antibiotics in patients with this disorder. Funding Gilead Sciences.
    The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70165-1