Propofol attenuates intestinal mucosa injury induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether propofol at a sedative dose can prevent intestinal mucosa ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and if propofol can attenuate oxidative stress and increases in nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) release that may occur during intestinal I/R injury.
Rats were randomly allocated into one of five groups (n=10 each): (i) sham control; (ii) injury (one hour superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by three hours reperfusion); (iii) propofol pre-treatment, with propofol given 30 min before inducing intestinal ischemia; (iv) simultaneous propofol treatment, with propofol given 30 min before intestinal reperfusion was started; (v) propofol post-treatment, with propofol given 30 min after intestinal reperfusion was initiated. In the treatment groups, propofol 50 mg x kg(-1) was administrated intraperitoneally. Animals in the control and untreated injury groups received equal volumes of intralipid (the vehicle solution of propofol) intraperitoneally. Intestinal mucosa histology was analyzed by Chiu's scoring assessment. Levels of lactic acid (LD), NO, ET-1, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in intestinal mucosa were determined.
Histological results showed severe damage in the intestinal mucosa of the injury group accompanied by increases in MDA, NO and ET-1 and a decrease in SOD activity. Propofol treatments, especially pre-treatment, significantly reduced Chiu's scores and levels of MDA, NO, ET-1 and LD, while restoring SOD activity.
These findings indicate that propofol attenuates intestinal I/R-induced mucosal injury in an animal model. The response may be attributable to propofol's antioxidant properties, and the effects of inhibiting over-production of NO and in decreasing ET-1 levels.
SourceAvailable from: Zhengyuan Xia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhalation anesthetic isoflurane inhibits hypoxia pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), while dexmedetomidine (Dex) could reduce the dose of isoflurane inhalation and potentiate HPV, but the mechanism is unclear. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can favor HPV during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Similarly, nitric oxide (NO), an important endothelium derived vasodilator in lung circulation, can decrease the regional pulmonary vascular resistance of ventilated lung and reduce intrapulmonary shunting. We hypothesized that Dex may augment HPV and improve oxygenation during OLV through inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing NO release. Patients undergoing OLV during elective thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to either isoflurane + saline (NISO, 𝑛 = 24) or isoflurane + dexmedetomidine (DISO, 𝑛 = 25) group. Anesthesia was maintained with intravenous remifentanil and inhalational isoflurane (1.0–2.0%), with concomitant infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.7 𝜇gkg−1h−1 in DISO and saline 0.25mL kg−1h−1 in NISO group. Hemodynamic variables or depth of anesthesia did not significantly differ between groups. Administration of Dex significantly reduced Qs/Qt and increased PaO2 after OLV, accompanied with reduced lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and higher levels of SOD activity as well as serum NO (all 𝑃 < 0.05 DISO versus NISO). In conclusion, reducing oxidative stress and increasing NO release during OLV may represent a mechanism whereby Dex potentiates HPV.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2015; 2015:238041. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postliver transplantation acute kidney injury (AKI) severely affects patient survival, whereas the mechanism is unclear and effective therapy is lacking. The authors postulated that reperfusion induced enhancement of connexin32 (Cx32) gap junction plays a critical role in mediating postliver transplantation AKI and that pretreatment/precondition with the anesthetic propofol, known to inhibit gap junction, can confer effective protection.Anesthesiology 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000448 · 6.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both oxidative stress and mast cell (MC) degranulation participate in the process of small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR) injury, and oxidative stress induces MC degranulation. Propofol, an anesthetic with antioxidant property, can attenuate IIR injury. We postulated that propofol can protect against IIR injury by inhibiting oxidative stress subsequent fromNADPH oxidasemediated MC activation. Cultured RBL-2H3 cells were pretreated with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or propofol and subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation without or with MC degranulator compound 48/80 (CP). H2O2 significantly increased cells degranulation, which was abolished by NAC or propofol. MC degranulation by CP further aggravated H2O2 induced cell degranulation of small intestinal epithelial cell, IEC-6 cells, stimulated by tryptase. Rats subjected to IIR showed significant increases in cellular injury and elevations of NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and gp91phox protein expression, increases of the specific lipid peroxidation product 15-F2t-Isoprostane and interleukin-6, and reductions in superoxide dismutase activity with concomitant enhancements in tryptase and 𝛽-hexosaminidase. MC degranulation by CP further aggravated IIR injury. And all these changes were attenuated by NAC or propofol pretreatment, which also abrogated CP-mediated exacerbation of IIR injury. It is concluded that pretreatment of propofol confers protection against IIR injury by suppressing NADPH oxidase mediated MC activation.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2015; 2015(2015):167014. · 3.36 Impact Factor