The Russian Blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 06/2007; 104(19):7780-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701644104
Source: PubMed


English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

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    • "The blue region of color space was shown to be consistently categorized by Russian speakers into two non-overlapping regions, a 'light blue' region and a 'dark blue' region, designated by the distinct terms " goluboj " and " sinij " respectively. Influences of this category distinction on color discrimination were investigated by Winawer et al. (2007), who found that Russian speakers were able to discriminate two colors faster when they fell into different 'blue' categories in Russian, and this advantage was not shown by English speakers who do not have a similarly lexicalized category distinction. Distinctions in the blue region of color space have similarly been shown for Greek (Androulaki et al., 2001), Japanese (Uchikawa and Boynton, 1987), and Turkish (Özgen & Davies, 1998) color lexicons. "
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    • "nd Ward ' s ( 2013 ) study , participants who were presented with valid vs . invalid labels for the object present during CFS actually showed greater sensitivity to detect the presence of a suppressed image . " Label - feedback " thus explains the myriad ways in which language impacts spatial cognition ( Boroditsky , 2001 ) , color per - ception ( Winawer et al . , 2007 ) , action perception ( Stanfield and Zwaan , 2001 ; Zwaan et al . , 2002 ) and not least , our own language"
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