Synaptic alterations in CA1 in mild Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment
ABSTRACT To evaluate the total number of synapses in the stratum radiatum (str rad) of the human hippocampal CA1 subfield in individuals with mild Alzheimer disease (mAD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or no cognitive impairment (NCI) and determine if synapse loss is an early event in the progression of the disease.
Short postmortem autopsy tissue was obtained, and an unbiased stereologic sampling scheme coupled with transmission electron microscopy was used to directly visualize synaptic contacts.
Individuals with mAD had fewer synapses (55%) than the other two diagnostic groups. Individuals with MCI had a mean synaptic value that was 18% lower than the NCI group mean. The total number of synapses showed a correlation with several cognitive tests including those involving both immediate and delayed recall. Total synaptic numbers showed no relationship to the subject's Braak stage or to APOE genotype. The volume of the str rad was reduced in mAD vs the other two diagnostic groups that were not different from each other.
These results strongly support the concept that synapse loss is a structural correlate involved very early in cognitive decline in mild Alzheimer disease (mAD) and supports mild cognitive impairment as a transitional stage between mAD and no cognitive impairment.
SourceAvailable from: Laus M BroersenEuropean geriatric medicine 09/2013; 4:S130. DOI:10.1016/j.eurger.2013.07.427 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synaptic failure and neurofibrillary degeneration are two major neuropathological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Only a few studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between these two AD hallmarks. To investigate tau mediated synaptic injury we used rat model of tauopathy that develops extensive neurofibrillary pathology in the cortex. Using fractionation of cortical synapses, we identified an increase in endogenous rat tau isoforms in presynaptic compartment, and their mis-sorting to the postsynaptic density (PSD). Truncated transgenic tau was distributed in both compartments exhibiting specific phospho-pattern that was characteristic for each synaptic compartment. In the presynaptic compartment, truncated tau was associated with impairment of dynamic stability of microtubules which could be responsible for reduction of synaptic vesicles. In the PSD, truncated tau lowered the levels of neurofilaments. Truncated tau also significantly decreased the synaptic levels of Aβ40 but not Aβ42. These data show that truncated tau differentially deregulates synaptic proteome in pre-and postsynaptic compartments. Importantly, we show that alteration of Aβ can arise downstream of truncated tau pathology.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 02/2015; 9(24). DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00024 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this study we analyzed whether oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress may constitute early events in AD pathogenesis by using human peripheral blood cells and an AD transgenic mouse model at different disease stages. Increased oxidative stress and increased phosphorylated Nrf2 (p(Ser40)Nrf2) were observed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, we observed impaired ER Ca(2+) homeostasis and increased ER stress markers in PBMCs from MCI individuals and mild AD patients. Evidence of early oxidative stress defense mechanisms in AD was substantiated by increased p(Ser40)Nrf2 in 3 month-old 3xTg-AD male mice PBMCs, and also with increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in brain cortex. However, SOD1 protein levels were decreased in human MCI PBMCs and in 3xTg-AD mice brain cortex; the latter further correlated with reduced SOD1 mRNA levels. Increased ER stress was also detected in the brain cortex of young female and old male 3xTg-AD mice. We demonstrate oxidative stress and early Nrf2 activation in AD human and mouse models, which fails to regulate some of its targets, leading to repressed expression of antioxidant defenses (e.g. SOD-1), and extending to ER stress. Results suggest markers of prodromal AD linked to oxidative stress associated with Nrf2 activation and ER stress that may be followed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.03.015 · 4.66 Impact Factor