Psychiatric comorbidity and suicide risk in adolescents with chronic daily headache
ABSTRACT To investigate the prevalence and correlates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal risk in community-based adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH).
We identified and recruited 122 adolescents with CDH from a non-referral student sample (n = 7,900). CDH subtypes were classified according to the most updated criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-2). An in-person psychiatric interview was performed with each subject with CDH to assess depressive and anxiety disorders and suicidal risk based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid (MINI-Kid). Clinical correlates and impacts were investigated.
A total of 121 subjects (31 male/90 female, mean age 13.8 years) finished the psychiatric interview. Fifty-seven subjects (47%) had > or =1 assessed psychiatric comorbidity with major depression (21%) and panic disorder (19%) as the two most common diagnoses. Current suicidal risk was assessed as high (score > or = 10) in 20% of subjects. Female gender and older age were associated with depressive disorders. Presence of migraine was associated with psychiatric comorbidities (OR = 3.5, p = 0.002). The associations with psychiatric disorders were stronger for migraine with aura than for migraine without aura. Migraine with aura also independently predicted a high suicidal risk (score > or = 10) (adjusted OR = 6.0, p = 0.028). In contrast, CDH subtypes, headache frequencies, or medication overuse were not correlated. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were not related to physician consultations or more days of sick leave.
This community-based study showed high comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and suicidal risk in adolescents with chronic daily headache. The presence of migraine attacks, especially migraine with aura, was the major predictor for these associations.
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