To investigate the prevalence and correlates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal risk in community-based adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH).
We identified and recruited 122 adolescents with CDH from a non-referral student sample (n = 7,900). CDH subtypes were classified according to the most updated criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-2). An in-person psychiatric interview was performed with each subject with CDH to assess depressive and anxiety disorders and suicidal risk based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid (MINI-Kid). Clinical correlates and impacts were investigated.
A total of 121 subjects (31 male/90 female, mean age 13.8 years) finished the psychiatric interview. Fifty-seven subjects (47%) had > or =1 assessed psychiatric comorbidity with major depression (21%) and panic disorder (19%) as the two most common diagnoses. Current suicidal risk was assessed as high (score > or = 10) in 20% of subjects. Female gender and older age were associated with depressive disorders. Presence of migraine was associated with psychiatric comorbidities (OR = 3.5, p = 0.002). The associations with psychiatric disorders were stronger for migraine with aura than for migraine without aura. Migraine with aura also independently predicted a high suicidal risk (score > or = 10) (adjusted OR = 6.0, p = 0.028). In contrast, CDH subtypes, headache frequencies, or medication overuse were not correlated. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were not related to physician consultations or more days of sick leave.
This community-based study showed high comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and suicidal risk in adolescents with chronic daily headache. The presence of migraine attacks, especially migraine with aura, was the major predictor for these associations.
"This suggests that the degree of these symptoms may be more related to the frequency and severity of headache than to headache subtype. It is previously reported higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in chronic daily headache than in other headache subtypes both in children/adolescents and adults
[29,30]. Whether the association is specifically linked to recurrent headache, or to headache as a chronic pain is unclear. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway.
A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties.
In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p < 0.001), but not with behavioral problems. A significant association with anxiety and depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p < 0,001) and attention difficulties (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44, p =0.001). For migraine there was a significant association with both anxiety and depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups.
The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management.
The Journal of Headache and Pain 06/2014; 15(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1129-2377-15-38 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"This association has also been found in the general population [22, 35, 43, 66]. In contrast, the subtypes of CDH, headache frequencies, or medication overuse were not correlated with the risk of attempted suicide . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric disorders among headache patients have yielded findings that have clarified the relationship between migraine and major affective disorders, anxiety, illicit drug abuse, nicotine dependence, and suicide attempts. Studies in both clinical and community-based settings have demonstrated an association between migraine and a number of specific psychiatric disorders. In large-scale population-based studies, persons with migraine are from 2.2 to 4.0 times more likely to have depression. In longitudinal studies, the evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between migraine and depression, with each disorder increasing the risk of the other disorder. Although a strong association has been demonstrated consistently for migraine and major depression, especially for migraine with aura, there has been less systematic research on the links between migraine and bipolar disorder. This review will focus on the way in which psychiatric disorders decrease the quality of life and result in a worse prognosis, chronicity of the disease, and a worse response to treatment. Short-term pharmaceutical care intervention improves the patients' mental health, but it does not significantly change the number and severity of headaches. The increase in self-efficacy and mental health associated with pharmaceutical care may be instrumental in improving the long-term pharmacotherapy of patients with migraine and headache.
The Journal of Headache and Pain 07/2009; 10(4):283-90. DOI:10.1007/s10194-009-0134-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural networks are usually considered as arrays of interconnected nonlinear gain elements with linear couplings. Some newer concepts indicate that biological neural networks may be considered to be linear gain units interconnected with nonlinear couplings. A neural network model proposed by B. Baird (1989) and having these characteristics is extended to a neural network behaving as a continuum or as a neural medium. This type of neural network has characteristics that make it ideal for implementation in a coherent optical system. The behavior of this neural network may be reproduced with an optical resonator containing a nonlinear optical crystal. Information can be made to correspond the resonator's modes. Depending on various parameters, it can exhibit winner-take-all dynamics or chaos
Neural Networks, 1992. IJCNN., International Joint Conference on; 07/1992
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