A polysaccharide extracted from rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes enhances natural killer cell activity and exhibits anticancer effects
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and anticancer effects of exo-biopolymer from rice bran cultured with Lentinus edodes [rice bran exo-biopolymer (RBEP)]. Oral administration of RBEP induced the activation of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner. RBEP also prolonged the life spans of mice transplanted with Sarcoma-180 cells and inhibited growing Sarcoma-180 cells in intraperitoneum. Solid tumor growth was also suppressed by oral administration of RBEP in C57/Bl6 mice transplanted with B16/Bl6 melanoma. Intraperitoneal injection of RBEP was more effective than oral administration at the same dosage in mice with transplanted tumor cells. According to this result, when RBEP directly contacts immune cells, the anticancer activity is higher than by indirectly inducing an immune response through oral administration. Therefore, we suggest that the administration of RBEP may be effective for preventing and/or treating cancer through NK cell activation. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anticancer activity and to investigate the other beneficial effects of RBEP for the development of a new biological response modifier.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the innate immuno-modulatory effects and anti-cancer action of arabinogalactan (AG), a derivative of a well-known orchid, Anoectochilus formosanus, were investigated. The innate immuno-modulatory effects of AG were determined in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells for microarray analysis, and in vivo using BALB/c mice administrated with AG at 5 and 15mg/kg intra-peritoneally for 3 weeks. The anti-cancer activity of AG was evaluated by CT26 colon cancer-bearing BALB/c mice. The microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the innate immunity and demonstrated that AG significantly induced the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and co-stimulatory receptors, such as IL-1α, CXCL2, and CD69. An intraperitoneal injection of AG in mice increased the spleen weight, but not the body weight. The treatment of mitogen, LPS significantly stimulated splenocyte proliferation in AG treated groups. The AG treatment also promoted splenocyte cytotoxicity against YAC-1 cells and increased the percentage of CD3(+)CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells in innate immunity test. Our experiments revealed that AG significantly decreased both tumour size and tumour weight. Besides, AG increased the percentage of DC, CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells, CD49b(+)CD3(-) NK cells among splenocytes, and cytotoxicity activity in tumour-bearing mice. In addition, the immunohistochemistry of the tumour demonstrated that the AG treatments increased the tumour-filtrating NK and cytotoxic T-cell. These results demonstrated that AG, a polysaccharide derived from a plant source, has potent innate immuno-modulatory and anti-cancer activity. AG may therefore be used for cancer immunotherapy.Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2013.10.032 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous melanoma, a cancer of melanocytes, when detected at later stages is arguably one of the most lethal cancers and the cause of more years of lost life than any other cancer among young adults. There is no standard therapy for advanced-stage melanoma and the median survival time for patients with metastatic melanoma is <1 yr. An urgent need for novel strategies against melanoma has directed research towards the development of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents that can target the tumor by several different mechanisms. Recently, several dietary agents are being investigated for their role in the prevention and treatment of various forms of cancer and may represent the future modality of the treatment. Here, we have reviewed emerging data on botanicals that are showing promise for their potential inhibitory effect against cutaneous melanoma.Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 03/2011; 24(4):688-702. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2011.00851.x · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the " Food of the Gods. " For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an " elixir of life. " They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.International Journal of Microbiology 01/2015; 2015:14. DOI:10.1155/2015/376387 · 4.53 Impact Factor