Maintenance and attrition of T-cell memory.
ABSTRACT After antigenic stimulation in the context of "danger signals," naive T cells embark on a programmed, intense expansion phase to counteract the rapid proliferation of pathogens. During the first week of infection, responding T cells undergo > 1000-fold expansion, resulting in the development of large numbers of cells exhibiting potent effector function. As the pathogen (antigen) burden dwindles, a majority of the effectors generated are eliminated by apoptosis, resulting in the survival and maintenance of a small population of antigen-specific cells as long-term memory T cells. Depending on the infection studied, CD8+ T cells appear to differentiate through multiple pathways into resting and effector memory subsets, and require multiple cytokines and cell surface molecules for survival and proliferation. Once generated, the repertoire of memory T cells remains highly vulnerable to attrition during heterologous infections, where homeostatic forces drive deletions in T-cell memory pools to accommodate the entry of new memory T cells. This review will primarily focus on the factors that influence the generation, maintenance, and attrition of memory CD8+ T cells.
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ABSTRACT: Induction of a functional CD8(+) T-cell response is the important criterion for cancer vaccines, and it is unclear whether acute or chronic live vectors are better suited for cancer antigen delivery. We have evaluated the tumor protective ability of two recombinant vectors, Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Salmonella typhimurium (ST), both expressing ovalbumin (OVA). Although both vectors induced a similar OVA-specific CD8(+) T-cell response in the long term, LM-OVA induced mainly central-phenotype (T(CM), CD44(high)CD62L(high)), whereas ST-OVA induced mainly effector-phenotype (T(EM), CD44(high)CD62L(low)) cells. Both vectors induced functional OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells that expressed IFN-gamma and killed targets specifically in vivo. However, only LM-OVA-vaccinated mice were protected against B16-OVA tumors. This correlated to the ability of CD8(+) T cells generated against LM-OVA, but not against ST-OVA, to produce interleukin 2 and exhibit profound homeostatic and antigen-induced proliferation in vivo. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of memory CD8(+) T cells generated against LM-OVA (but not against ST-OVA) into recipient mice resulted in their trafficking to tumor-draining lymph nodes conferring protection. Although cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production are considered to be the principal functions of memory CD8(+) T cells, the vaccine delivery strategy may also influence memory CD8(+) T-cell quality, and ability to proliferate and traffic to tumors. Thus, for efficacy, cancer vaccines should be selected for their ability to induce self-renewing memory CD8(+) T cells (CD44(high)IL-7Ralpha(high)CD62L(high)) besides their effector functions.Cancer Research 06/2009; 69(10):4327-34. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In subunit vaccines, strong CD8(+) T-cell responses are desired, yet they are elusive at reasonable adjuvant doses. We show that targeting adjuvant to the lymph node (LN) via ultrasmall polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), which rapidly drain to the LN after intradermal injection, greatly enhances adjuvant efficacy at low doses. Coupling CpG-B or CpG-C oligonucleotides to NPs led to better dual-targeting of adjuvant and antigen (codelivered on separate NPs) in cross-presenting dendritic cells compared with free adjuvant. This led to enhanced dendritic cell maturation and T helper 1 (Th1)-cytokine secretion, in turn driving stronger effector CD8(+) T-cell activation with enhanced cytolytic profiles and, importantly, more powerful memory recall. With only 4 μg CpG, NP-CpG-B could substantially protect mice from syngeneic tumor challenge, even after 4 mo of vaccination, compared with free CpG-B. Together, these results show that nanocarriers can enhance vaccine efficacy at a low adjuvant dose for inducing potent and long-lived cellular immunity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central memory CD8(+) T cells expressing the adhesion molecule CD62L (L-selectin) are potent mediators of anti-cancer immunity due to their ability to proliferate extensively upon antigen re-stimulation. The interaction of selectin with its ligands mediates leukocyte rolling along high endothelial venules. Mice deficient in α(1,3) Fucosyltransferase IV and VII (FtDKO) lack functional L, P and E selectin ligands. Thus, we addressed whether the lack of selectin ligand interactions alters tumor protection by CD8(+) T cells in FtDKO mice. Listeria monocytogenes-OVA (LM-OVA) infection evoked potent OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells that proliferated and contracted at similar kinetics and phenotype in FtDKO and wild-type mice. Additionally, OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells in both mouse strains exhibited similar phenotypic differentiation, in vivo cytolytic activity and IFN-γ expression. However, FtDKO mice succumbed to B16-OVA tumors significantly earlier than wild-type mice. In contrast, FtDKO mice evoked strong recall memory CD8(+) T cell responses and protection to systemic LM-OVA re-challenge. The diminished tumor protection in FtDKO mice was not related to defective antigen presentation by dendritic cells or reduced proliferation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. However, WT or FtDKO OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells showed significantly reduced ability to traffic to lymph nodes upon adoptive transfer into naïve FtDKO recipients. Furthermore, FtDKO OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells displayed poor ability to infiltrate tumors growing in WT mice. These results reveal that selectin ligand expression on host endothelium as well CD8(+) T cells may be important for their efficient and continued extravasation into peripheral tumors.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32211. · 3.73 Impact Factor