Therapeutic efficacy and safety of undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with (-)-hydroxycitric acid and chromemate in arthritic dogs.
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that undenatured type II collagen is effective in the treatment of arthritis. The present study evaluated the broad-spectrum safety of UC-II by a variety of toxicological assays including acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, and primary eye irritation toxicity. In addition, genotoxicity studies such as Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay and mouse lymphoma tests, as well as a dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study were conducted. Safety studies indicated that acute oral LD(50) of UC-II was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD(50) of UC-II was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Primary skin irritation tests conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits classified UC-II as slightly irritating. Primary eye irritation tests conducted on rabbits indicated that UC-II was moderately irritating to the eye. UC-II did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains either with or without metabolic activation. Similarly, UC-II did not induce a mutagenic effect in the gene mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells either with or without metabolic activation. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study revealed no pathologically significant changes in selected organ weights individually or as percentages of body or brain weights. No significant changes were observed in hematology and clinical chemistry. Therefore, the results from the current study show a broad-spectrum safety profile of UC-II.Toxicology mechanisms and methods 02/2010; 20(4):175-89. DOI:10.3109/15376511003646440 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The investigation was conducted on client-owned moderately arthritic dogs with two objectives: (i) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and chondroitin sulphate (CHO), and (ii) to determine their tolerability and safety. Dogs in four groups (n = 7-10), were treated daily for a period of 150 days with placebo (Group-I), 10 mg active UC-II (Group-II), 2000 mg GLU + 1600 mg CHO (Group-III), and UC-II + GLU + CHO (Group-IV). On a monthly basis, dogs were evaluated for observational pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and pain after physical exertion) using different numeric scales. Pain level was also measured objectively using piezoelectric sensor-based GFP for peak vertical force and impulse area. Dogs were also examined every month for physical, hepatic (ALP, ALT and bilirubin) and renal (BUN and creatinine) functions. Based on observations, significant (p < 0.05) reduction in pain was noted in Group-II, III, and IV dogs. Using GFP, significant increases in peak vertical force (N/kg body wt) and impulse area (N s/kg body wt), indicative of a decrease in arthritis associated pain, were observed in Group-II dogs only. None of the dogs in any group showed changes in physical, hepatic or renal functions. In conclusion, based on GFP data, moderately arthritic dogs treated with UC-II (10 mg) showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with maximum improvement by day 150. UC-II, GLU and CHO operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150 days.J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 05/2011; 96(5):770-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01166.x · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Various treatments of osteoarthritis (OA) have been described, including use of nutraceuticals. To review systematically the literature about the effects of nutraceuticals on clinical signs of pain or abnormal locomotion in horses, dogs, and cats, and to discuss methodological aspects of trials and systematic reviews. A systematic search of controlled trials evaluating the impact of nutraceuticals on OA in horses, dogs, and cats was performed, using Medline, CAB Abstracts, and Google Scholar. Scientific evidence was evaluated by means of criteria proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and a scoring system adapted from both the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and recommendations for assessing trials by the Center of Evidence Based Medicine of Oxford. Twenty-two papers were selected and reviewed, with 5 studies performed in horses, 16 in dogs, and 1 in cats. The strength of evidence was low for all nutraceuticals except for omega-3 fatty acid in dogs. There were limited numbers of rigorous randomized controlled trials and of participants in clinical trials. The evidence of efficacy of nutraceuticals is poor, with the exception of diets supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids in dogs. Greater access to systematic reviews must be part of the objectives of the veterinary science in the future. Their reporting would be improved by internationally agreed-upon criteria for standards and guidelines.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2012; 26(3):448-56. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00901.x · 2.22 Impact Factor