There is hardly a membrane-associated molecular event that is not regulated by phosphoinositides, a minor but critically important class of phospholipids of cellular membranes. The rapid formation, elimination, and conversion of these lipids in specific membrane compartments are ensured by a wealthy number of inositol lipid kinases and phosphatases with unique localization and regulatory properties. The existence of multiple inositol lipid pools have been indicated by metabolic labeling studies, but the level of functional compartmentalization revealed by the identification of numerous protein effectors acted upon by phosphoinositides could not have been foreseen. The changing perception of inositides from just serving as lipid precursors of second messengers to becoming highly dynamic local membrane-bound regulators poses new challenges concerning the detection of their rapid localized changes. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that manipulation of lipids in highly defined compartments would be a highly superior approach to soaking the cells with a particular phosphoinositide when studying the local regulation of the lipid on any effectors. In this review, we will summarize our efforts to improve our tools in studying phosphoinositide dynamics and discuss our views on the values of these methods compared to other options currently used or being explored.
"GFP–Clathrin light polypeptide was a kind gift from Louis Greene (NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD) (Yim et al., 2010), but its cytomegalovirus promoter was replaced with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) promoter to lower expression levels. PLCd1PH–Sluc and PLCd1PH– Venus were created by changing the sequence of the fluorescent protein in PLCd1PH–YFP (Várnai and Balla, 2007) to the sequence of Super Renilla luciferase or Venus, respectively, using AgeI and NotI enzymes. PM–FRB–mRFP and mRFP–FKBP–5-ptase constructs used for rapamycininduced PtdInsP 2 depletion were described earlier (Varnai et al., 2006), with the difference that for plasma membrane targeting of the FRB protein, we used the Nterminal targeting sequence of Lyn (MGCIKSKGKDSAGA) instead of GAP43 (MLCCMRRTKQVEKNDDDQKI). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor endocytosis plays an important role in regulating the responsiveness of cells to specific ligands. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] has been shown to be crucial for endocytosis of some cell surface receptors, such as EGF and transferrin receptors, but its role in G-protein-coupled receptor internalization has not been investigated. By using luciferase-labeled type 1 angiotensin II (AT1R), type 2C serotonin (5HT2CR) or β(2) adrenergic (β2AR) receptors and fluorescently tagged proteins (β-arrestin-2, plasma-membrane-targeted Venus, Rab5) we were able to follow the sequence of molecular interactions along the endocytic route of the receptors in HEK293 cells using the highly sensitive method of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy. To study the role of plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in receptor endocytosis, we used our previously developed rapamycin-inducible heterodimerization system, in which the recruitment of a 5-phosphatase domain to the plasma membrane degrades PtdIns(4,5)P(2). Here we show that ligand-induced interaction of AT1, 5HT2C and β(2)A receptors with β-arrestin-2 was unaffected by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) depletion. However, trafficking of the receptors to Rab5-positive early endosomes was completely abolished in the absence of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). Remarkably, removal of the receptors from the plasma membrane was reduced but not eliminated after PtdIns(4,5)P(2) depletion. Under these conditions, stimulated AT1 receptors clustered along the plasma membrane, but did not enter the cells. Our data suggest that in the absence of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), these receptors move into clathrin-coated membrane structures, but these are not cleaved efficiently and hence cannot reach the early endosomal compartment.
"Based on the crystal structure, the rapamycin-inducible linker was estimated to span 5–6 nm (Vá rnai and Balla, 2007). In addition, transmission EM studies of constitutive OMM-ER linker-expressing cells have shown that this linker shortened the ER-mitochondrial gap width to <7 nm (Csordá s et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ER-mitochondrial junction provides a local calcium signaling domain that is critical for both matching energy production with demand and the control of apoptosis. Here, we visualize ER-mitochondrial contact sites and monitor the localized [Ca(2+)] changes ([Ca(2+)](ER-mt)) using drug-inducible fluorescent interorganelle linkers. We show that all mitochondria have contacts with the ER, but plasma membrane (PM)-mitochondrial contacts are less frequent because of interleaving ER stacks in both RBL-2H3 and H9c2 cells. Single mitochondria display discrete patches of ER contacts and show heterogeneity in the ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) transfer. Pericam-tagged linkers revealed IP(3)-induced [Ca(2+)](ER-mt) signals that exceeded 9 microM and endured buffering bulk cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] increases. Altering linker length to modify the space available for the Ca(2+) transfer machinery had a biphasic effect on [Ca(2+)](ER-mt) signals. These studies provide direct evidence for the existence of high-Ca(2+) microdomains between the ER and mitochondria and suggest an optimal gap width for efficient Ca(2+) transfer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed membrane dynamics after labeling with RabA4b, a marker for polarized membrane trafficking in root hairs. This revealed stochastic loss and recovery of the RabA4b compartment in the tips of growing root hairs, consistent with a role for the RHD4 protein in regulation of polarized membrane trafficking in these cells. The wild-type RHD4 gene was identified by map-based cloning and was found to encode a Sac1p-like phosphoinositide phosphatase. RHD4 displayed a preference for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] in vitro, and rhd4-1 roots accumulated higher levels of PI(4)P in vivo. In wild-type root hairs, PI(4)P accumulated primarily in a tip-localized plasma membrane domain, but in rhd4-1 mutants, significant levels of PI(4)P were detected associated with internal membranes. A fluorescent RHD4 fusion protein localized to membranes at the tips of growing root hairs. We propose that RHD4 is selectively recruited to RabA4b-labeled membranes that are involved in polarized expansion of root hair cells and that, in conjunction with the phosphoinositide kinase PI-4Kbeta1, RHD4 regulates the accumulation of PI(4)P on membrane compartments at the tips of growing root hairs.
The Plant Cell 03/2008; 20(2):381-95. DOI:10.1105/tpc.107.054304 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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