Targeting dual-specificity phosphatases: manipulating MAP kinase signalling and immune responses.

Immunology and Inflammation Research Program, The Garvan Institute, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.
dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery (Impact Factor: 37.23). 06/2007; 6(5):391-403. DOI: 10.1038/nrd2289
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a subset of protein tyrosine phosphatases, many of which dephosphorylate threonine and tyrosine residues on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and hence are also referred to as MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). The regulated expression and activity of DUSP family members in different cells and tissues controls MAPK intensity and duration to determine the type of physiological response. For immune cells, DUSPs regulate responses in both positive and negative ways, and DUSP-deficient mice have been used to identify individual DUSPs as key regulators of immune responses. From a drug discovery perspective, DUSP family members are promising drug targets for manipulating MAPK-dependent immune responses in a cell-type and disease-context-dependent manner, to either boost or subdue immune responses in cancers, infectious diseases or inflammatory disorders.

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